Abstract

In the present investigation, the COOH-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having an outer diameter of 20–30 nm and length 1−2 μm were dispersed in four different grades of polyalphaolefins (PAOs; i.e., PAO 4, PAO 6, PAO 40, and PAO 100) at various concentrations (0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.10, and 0.15 wt%) to evaluate friction, anti-wear, and extreme pressure properties. The tribological test was conducted as per ASTM standard using four-ball tester. The test results showed that with the addition of MWCNTs, the friction and wear properties of PAOs had been improved significantly as compared to the base oils. It was also observed that MWCNTs exhibited excellent anti-wear properties than friction properties. The possible reasons for the improvement in friction and wear properties are discussed with the aid of various analytical tools.

References

References
1.
Mortier
RM
,
Fox
MF
, and
Orszulik
ST
, eds.,
2010
,
Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants
,
Springer
,
New York
.
2.
Hsien
,
W. L. Y.
,
2015
,
Utilization of Vegetable Oil as Bio-Lubricant and Additive
,
Springer
,
Singapore
.
3.
Kolodziejczyk
,
L.
,
Martínez-Martínez
,
D.
,
Rojas
,
T. C.
,
Fernández
,
A.
, and
Sánchez-López
,
J. C.
,
2007
, “
Surface-Modified Pd Nanoparticles as a Superior Additive for Lubrication
,”
J. Nanoparticle Res.
,
9
(
4
), pp.
639
645
. 10.1007/s11051-006-9124-3
4.
Abad
,
M. D.
, and
Sánchez-López
,
J. C.
,
2013
, “
Tribological Properties of Surface-Modified Pd Nanoparticles for Electrical Contacts
,”
Wear
,
297
(
1–2
), pp.
943
951
. 10.1016/j.wear.2012.11.009
5.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
Xu
,
Y.
,
Yang
,
Y.
,
Zhang
,
S.
,
Zhang
,
P.
, and
Zhang
,
Z.
,
2015
, “
Synthesis and Tribological Properties of Oil-Soluble Copper Nanoparticles as Environmentally Friendly Lubricating Oil Additives
,”
Ind. Lubr. Tribol.
,
67
(
3
), pp.
227
232
. 10.1108/ILT-10-2012-0098
6.
Ye
,
W.
,
Cheng
,
T.
,
Ye
,
Q.
,
Guo
,
X.
,
Zhang
,
Z.
, and
Dang
,
H.
,
2003
, “
Preparation and Tribological Properties of Tetrafluorobenzoic Acid-Modified TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additives
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng. A
,
359
(
1–2
), pp.
82
85
. 10.1016/S0921-5093(03)00353-8
7.
Wu
,
Y. Y.
,
Tsui
,
W. C.
, and
Liu
,
T. C.
,
2007
, “
Experimental Analysis of Tribological Properties of Lubricating Oils With Nanoparticle Additives
,”
Wear
,
262
(
7–8
), pp.
819
825
. 10.1016/j.wear.2006.08.021
8.
Ma
,
S.
,
Zheng
,
S.
,
Cao
,
D.
, and
Guo
,
H.
,
2010
, “
Anti-Wear and Friction Performance of ZrO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive
,”
Particuology
,
8
(
5
), pp.
468
472
. 10.1016/j.partic.2009.06.007
9.
Alves
,
S. M.
,
Barros
,
B. S.
,
Trajano
,
M. F.
,
Ribeiro
,
K. S. B.
, and
Moura
,
E.
,
2013
, “
Tribological Behavior of Vegetable Oil-Based Lubricants With Nanoparticles of Oxides in Boundary Lubrication Conditions
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
65
, pp.
28
36
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2013.03.027
10.
Gao
,
C.
,
Wang
,
Y.
,
Hu
,
D.
,
Pan
,
Z.
, and
Xiang
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Tribological Properties of Magnetite Nanoparticles With Various Morphologies as Lubricating Additives
,”
J. Nanoparticle Res.
,
15
(
3
), p.
1502
. 10.1007/s11051-013-1502-z
11.
Luo
,
T.
,
Wei
,
X.
,
Huang
,
X.
,
Huang
,
L.
, and
Yang
,
F.
,
2014
, “
Tribological Properties of Al2O3 Nanoparticles as Lubricating Oil Additives
,”
Ceram. Int.
,
40
(
5
), pp.
7143
7149
. 10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.12.050
12.
Gulzar
,
M.
,
Masjuki
,
H.
,
Varman
,
M.
,
Kalam
,
M.
,
Mufti
,
R. A.
,
Zulkifli
,
N.
,
Yunus
,
R.
, and
Zahid
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Improving the AW/EP Ability of Chemically Modified Palm Oil by Adding CuO and MoS2 Nanoparticles
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
88
, pp.
271
279
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2015.03.035
13.
Sui
,
T.
,
Song
,
B.
,
Zhang
,
F.
, and
Yang
,
Q.
,
2015
, “
Effects of Functional Groups on the Tribological Properties of Hairy Silica Nanoparticles as an Additive to Polyalphaolefin
,”
RSC Adv.
,
6
(
1
), pp.
393
402
. 10.1039/C5RA22932D
14.
Sui
,
T.
,
Song
,
B.
,
Wen
,
Y. H.
, and
Zhang
,
F.
,
2016
, “
Bifunctional Hairy Silica Nanoparticles as High-Performance Additives for Lubricant
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
6
(
1
), p.
22696
. 10.1038/srep22696
15.
Rawat
,
S. S.
,
Harsha
,
A. P.
, and
Deepak
,
A. P.
,
2019
, “
Tribological Performance of Paraffin Grease With Silica Nanoparticles as an Additive
,”
Appl. Nanosci.
,
9
(
3
), pp.
305
315
. 10.1007/s13204-018-0911-9
16.
Demas
,
N. G.
,
Timofeeva
,
E. V.
,
Routbort
,
J. L.
, and
Fenske
,
G. R.
,
2012
, “
Tribological Effects of BN and MOS2 Nanoparticles Added to Polyalphaolefin Oil in Piston Skirt/Cylinder Liner Tests
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
47
(
1
), pp.
91
102
. 10.1007/s11249-012-9965-0
17.
Rawat
,
S. S.
,
Harsha
,
A. P.
,
Agarwal
,
D. P.
,
Kumari
,
S.
, and
Khatri
,
O. P.
,
2019
, “
Pristine and Alkylated MoS2 Nanosheets for Enhancement of Tribological Performance of Paraffin Grease Under Boundary Lubrication Regime
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
141
(
7
), pp.
072102
072112
. 10.1115/1.4043606
18.
Muzakkir
,
S. M.
,
Lijesh
,
K. P.
, and
Hirani
,
H.
,
2016
, “
Influence of Surfactants on Tribological Behaviors of MWCNTs (Multi-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes)
,”
Tribol.—Mater. Surf. Interfaces
,
10
(
2
), pp.
74
81
. 10.1080/17515831.2016.1138636
19.
Peng
,
Y.
,
Hu
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
H.
,
2007
, “
Tribological Behaviors of Surfactant-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes as Lubricant Additive in Water
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
25
(
3
), pp.
247
253
. 10.1007/s11249-006-9176-7
20.
Mallakpour
,
S.
, and
Soltanian
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Surface Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes: Fabrication and Applications
,”
RSC Adv.
,
6
(
111
), pp.
109916
109935
. 10.1039/C6RA24522F
21.
Wepasnick
,
K. A.
,
Smith
,
B. A.
,
Bitter
,
J. L.
, and
Howard Fairbrother
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Chemical and Structural Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Surfaces
,”
Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
,
396
(
3
), pp.
1003
1014
. 10.1007/s00216-009-3332-5
22.
Chen
,
C. S.
,
Chen
,
X. H.
,
Xu
,
L. S.
,
Yang
,
Z.
, and
Li
,
W. H.
,
2005
, “
Modification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes With Fatty Acid and Their Tribological Properties as Lubricant Additive
,”
Carbon N. Y.
,
43
(
8
), pp.
1660
1666
. 10.1016/j.carbon.2005.01.044
23.
Cornelio
,
J. A. C.
,
Cuervo
,
P. A.
,
Hoyos-Palacio
,
L. M.
,
Lara-Romero
,
J.
, and
Toro
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Tribological Properties of Carbon Nanotubes as Lubricant Additive in Oil and Water for a Wheel-Rail System
,”
J. Mater. Res. Technol.
,
5
(
1
), pp.
68
76
. 10.1016/j.jmrt.2015.10.006
24.
Wang
,
B.
,
Wang
,
X.
,
Lou
,
W.
, and
Hao
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Rheological and Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquid-Based Nanofluids Containing Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
,”
J. Phys. Chem. C
,
114
(
19
), pp.
8749
8754
. 10.1021/jp1005346
25.
Ettefaghi
,
E. o. l.
,
Ahmadi
,
H.
,
Rashidi
,
A.
,
Nouralishahi
,
A.
, and
Mohtasebi
,
S. S.
,
2013
, “
Preparation and Thermal Properties of Oil-Based Nanofluid From Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Engine Oil as Nano-Lubricant
,”
Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf.
,
46
, pp.
142
147
. 10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2013.05.003
26.
Yu
,
B.
,
Liu
,
Z.
,
Ma
,
C.
,
Sun
,
J.
,
Liu
,
W.
, and
Zhou
,
F.
,
2015
, “
Ionic Liquid Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Lubricant Additive
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
81
, pp.
38
42
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2014.07.019
27.
Khalil
,
W.
,
Mohamed
,
A.
,
Bayoumi
,
M.
, and
Osman
,
T. A.
,
2016
, “
Tribological Properties of Dispersed Carbon Nanotubes in Lubricant
,”
Fuller. Nanotub. Car. N.
,
24
(
7
), pp.
479
485
. 10.1080/1536383X.2016.1188804
28.
Wang
,
B.
,
Tang
,
W.
,
Liu
,
X.
, and
Huang
,
Z.
,
2017
, “
Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Decorated Muti-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as the Favorable Water-Based Lubricant Additives
,”
Appl. Phys. A Mater. Sci. Process.
,
123
(
11
), p.
680
. 10.1007/s00339-017-1320-8
29.
Su
,
Y.
,
Tang
,
Z.
,
Wang
,
G.
, and
Wan
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Influence of Carbon Nanotube on the Tribological Properties of Vegetable-Based Oil
,”
Adv. Mech. Eng.
,
10
(
5
), pp.
1
11
.
30.
Joly-Pottuz
,
L.
,
Dassenoy
,
F.
,
Vacher
,
B.
,
Martin
,
J. M.
, and
Mieno
,
T.
,
2004
, “
Ultralow Friction and Wear Behaviour of Ni/Y-Based Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs)
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
37
(
11–12
), pp.
1013
1018
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2004.07.019
31.
Joly-Pottuz
,
L.
,
Vacher
,
B.
,
Ohmae
,
N.
,
Martin
,
J. M.
, and
Epicier
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Anti-Wear and Friction Reducing Mechanisms of Carbon Nano-Onions as Lubricant Additives
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
30
(
1
), pp.
69
80
. 10.1007/s11249-008-9316-3
32.
Joly-Pottuz
,
L.
,
Vacher
,
B.
,
Le Mogne
,
T.
,
Martin
,
J. M.
,
Mieno
,
T.
,
He
,
C. N.
, and
Zhao
,
N. Q.
,
2008
, “
The Role of Nickel in Ni-Containing Nanotubes and Onions as Lubricant Additives
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
29
(
3
), pp.
213
219
. 10.1007/s11249-008-9298-1
33.
Kogovšek
,
J.
, and
Kalin
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Various MoS2-, WS2- and C-Based Micro- and Nanoparticles in Boundary Lubrication
,”
Tribol. Lett.
,
53
(
3
), pp.
585
597
. 10.1007/s11249-014-0296-1
34.
Nunn
,
N.
,
Mahbooba
,
Z.
,
Ivanov
,
M. G.
,
Ivanov
,
D. M.
,
Brenner
,
D. W.
, and
Shenderova
,
O.
,
2015
, “
Tribological Properties of Polyalphaolefin Oil Modified With Nanocarbon Additives
,”
Diam. Relat. Mater.
,
54
, pp.
97
102
. 10.1016/j.diamond.2014.09.003
35.
Ray
,
S.
,
P. V. C. R.
,
N. V. C.
, and
Corporate
,
2012
, “
Poly-a-Olefin-Based Synthetic Lubricants: A Short Review on Various Synthetic Routes
,”
Lubr. Sci.
,
24
(
1
), pp.
23
44
. 10.1002/ls.166
36.
Kosswig
,
K.
,
2000
, “Surfactants,”
Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry
, Wiley Online Library, Weinheim, Germany, pp.
431
501
.
37.
Hamrock
,
B. J.
, and
Dowson
,
D.
,
1978
, “
Minimum Film Thickness in Elliptical Contacts for Different Regimes of Fluid-Film Lubrication
,” pp.
1
24
.
38.
Hamrock
,
B. J.
,
Schmid
,
S. R.
, and
Jacobson
,
B. O.
,
2004
,
Fundamental of Fluid Film Lubrication, International Edition
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
39.
Kashyap
,
A.
, and
Harsha
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Tribological Studies on Chemically Modified Rapeseed Oil With CuO and CeO2 Nanoparticles
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J J. Eng. Tribol.
,
230
(
12
), pp.
1562
1571
. 10.1177/1350650116641328
40.
Gupta
,
R. N.
, and
Harsha
,
A. P.
,
2018
, “
Friction and Wear of Nanoadditive-Based Biolubricants in Steel–Steel Sliding Contacts: A Comparative Study
,”
J. Mater. Eng. Perform.
,
27
(
2
), pp.
648
658
. 10.1007/s11665-018-3175-3
41.
Zhang
,
L.
,
Pu
,
J.
,
Wang
,
L.
, and
Xue
,
Q.
,
2014
, “
Frictional Dependence of Graphene and Carbon Nanotube in Diamond-Like Carbon/Ionic Liquids Hybrid Films in Vacuum
,”
Carbon N. Y.
,
80
(
1
), pp.
734
745
. 10.1016/j.carbon.2014.09.022
42.
Zhang
,
L.
,
Pu
,
J.
,
Wang
,
L.
, and
Xue
,
Q.
,
2015
, “
Synergistic Effect of Hybrid Carbon Nanotube–Graphene Oxide as Nanoadditive Enhancing the Frictional Properties of Ionic Liquids in High Vacuum
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
7
(
16
), pp.
8592
8600
. 10.1021/acsami.5b00598
43.
Gupta
,
R. N.
, and
Harsha
,
A. P.
,
2018
, “
Antiwear and Extreme Pressure Performance of Castor Oil With Nano-Additives
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J J. Eng. Tribol.
,
232
(
9
), pp.
1055
1067
. 10.1177/1350650117739159
You do not currently have access to this content.