Abstract

This present article evaluates the state of starvation in a journal bearing using acoustic emission (AE) and vibration measurement techniques. A journal bearing requires a constant supply of oil in an adequate amount to develop a hydrodynamic film, thick enough to separate the surfaces and avoid asperity contacts. On a microscopic level, the surface interaction under starved lubrication results in deformation and fracture of asperities. This causes a proportionate increase in AE and vibration. The AE activities resulting from asperities interaction have significant energy in the frequency range of 100–400 kHz with peak frequencies in the range of 224–283 kHz. Further, the peak frequency shifts from the higher to lower side as the asperity interaction transits from the elastic to plastic contact. This information derived from the spectral analysis of AE signals can be used to develop condition monitoring parameters to proactively control the lubrication and prevent bearing failure.

References

References
1.
Poddar
,
S.
, and
Tandon
,
N.
,
2019
, “
Detection of Particle Contamination in Journal Bearing Using Acoustic Emission and Vibration Monitoring Techniques
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
134
(
6
), pp.
154
164
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.01.050
2.
Poddar
,
S.
, and
Tandon
,
N.
,
2016
, “
Detection of Journal Bearing Vapour Cavitation Using Vibration and Acoustic Emission Techniques With the Aid of Oil Film Photography
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
103
(
11
), pp.
95
101
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2016.06.039
3.
Liu
,
Z.
, and
Zhang
,
L.
,
2020
, “
A Review of Failure Modes, Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis Methods for Large-Scale Wind Turbine Bearings
,”
Measurement
,
149
(
1
), p.
107002
. 10.1016/j.measurement.2019.107002
4.
Khonsari
,
M. M.
, and
Booser
,
E. R.
,
2017
,
Applied Tribology: Bearing Design and Lubrication
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
5.
Connors
,
H. J.
,
1962
, “
An Analysis of the Effect of Lubricant Supply Rate on the Performance of the 360 deg Journal Bearing
,”
ASLE Trans.
,
5
(
2
), pp.
404
417
. 10.1080/05698196208972484
6.
Poddar
,
S.
, and
Tandon
,
N.
,
2016
, “
Characteristics of Acoustic Emission Signal for Fault Diagnosis of Journal Bearing
,”
International Conference on Condition Monitoring
,
Visakhapatnam, India
,
Oct. 26–27
, pp.
108
112
.
7.
Harnoy
,
A.
,
2002
,
Bearing Design in Machinery: Engineering Tribology and Lubrication
,
CRC Press
.
8.
Williams
,
J.
,
2005
,
Engineering Tribology
,
Cambridge University Press
.
9.
Kiameh
,
P.
,
2002
,
Power Generation Handbook: Selection, Applications, Operation, and Maintenance
,
McGraw-Hill Professional
.
10.
Dufrane
,
K. F.
,
Kannel
,
J. W.
, and
McCloskey
,
T. H.
,
1983
, “
Wear of Steam Turbine Journal Bearings at Low Operating Speeds
,”
J Lubr. Technol.
,
105
(
3
), pp.
313
317
. 10.1115/1.3254599
11.
Salamone
,
D. J.
,
1984
, “
Journal Bearing Design Types and Their Applications to Turbomachinery
,”
Proceedings of the 13th Turbomachinery Symposium
,
Texas
,
November
.
12.
Totten
,
G. E.
,
2006
,
Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology: Volume I Application and Maintenance
,
CRC Press
.
13.
Gresham
,
R. M.
, and
Totten
,
G. E.
,
2008
,
Lubrication and Maintenance of Industrial Machinery: Best Practices and Reliability
,
CRC Press
.
14.
Fitch
,
J.
,
2012
,
The Hidden Dangers of Lubricant Starvation
,
Machine Lubrication, Noria Corporation
.
15.
Machado
,
T. H.
,
Alves
,
D. S.
, and
Cavalca
,
K. L.
,
2019
, “
Investigation About Journal Bearing Wear Effect on Rotating System Dynamic Response in Time Domain
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
129
(
1
), pp.
124
136
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.08.004
16.
Mirhadizadeh
,
S. A.
, and
Mba
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Observations of Acoustic Emission in a Hydrodynamic Bearing
,”
J. Qual. Maint. Eng.
,
15
(
2
), pp.
193
201
. 10.1108/13552510910961138
17.
Hase
,
A.
,
Mishina
,
H.
, and
Wada
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Correlation Between Features of Acoustic Emission Signals and Mechanical Wear Mechanisms
,”
Wear
,
292
(
7
), pp.
144
150
. 10.1016/j.wear.2012.05.019
18.
ASTM E1316—15a
,
2000
,
Standard Terminology for Nondestructive Examinations—Section B: Acoustic Emission (AE) Terms
, Vol.
03
,
Annual Book of ASTM Standard
,
West Conshohocken, PA
.
19.
Hashimoto
,
H.
, and
Ochiai
,
M.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Study on the Stabilization of Small-Bore Journal Bearings by Controlling Starved Lubrication and Bearing Orientation Angle
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
131
(
1
), p.
011705
. 10.1115/1.2991128
20.
Hashimoto
,
H.
, and
Ochiai
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Stabilization Method for Small-Bore Journal Bearings Utilizing Starved Lubrication
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
132
(
1
), p.
011703
. 10.1115/1.4000269
21.
Agrawal
,
M.
, and
Krishnadutt
,
R. V. S.
,
2009
, “Fluid Induced Vibrations in Rotors Supported by Journal Bearings: A Case Study,”
Asset Intelligence Through Integration and Interoperability and Contemporary Vibration Engineering Technologies
,
J.
Mathew
,
C. W.
Lim
,
L.
Ma
,
D.
Sands
,
M. E.
Cholette
, and
P.
Borghesani
, eds.
,
Springer
,
Switzerland
, pp.
31
40
.
22.
Liu
,
C. L.
,
Guo
,
F.
, and
Wong
,
P. L.
,
2019
, “
Characterisation of Starved Hydrodynamic Lubricating Films
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
131
(
3
), pp.
694
701
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2018.10.047
23.
Mirhadizadeh
,
S. A.
,
Moncholi
,
E. P.
, and
Mba
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Influence of Operational Variables in a Hydrodynamic Bearing on the Generation of Acoustic Emission
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
43
(
9
), pp.
1760
1767
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2010.03.003
24.
Collacott
,
R. A.
,
1975
, “
Sonic Monitoring of Plain Bearings Subject to Seizure
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
8
(
3
), pp.
123
126
. 10.1016/0301-679X(75)90030-4
25.
Hase
,
A.
,
Mishina
,
H.
, and
Wada
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Fundamental Study on Early Detection of Seizure in Journal Bearing by Using Acoustic Emission Technique
,”
Wear
,
346
(
1
), pp.
132
139
. 10.1016/j.wear.2015.11.012
26.
Sadegh
,
H.
,
Mehdi
,
A. N.
, and
Mehdi
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Classification of Acoustic Emission Signals Generated From Journal Bearing at Different Lubrication Conditions Based on Wavelet Analysis in Combination With Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
95
(
3
), pp.
426
434
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2015.11.045
27.
Mokhtari
,
N.
, and
Gühmann
,
C.
,
2018
, “
Classification of Journal Bearing Friction States Based on Acoustic Emission Signals
,”
Tm-Tech. Mess.
,
85
(
6
), pp.
434
442
. 10.1515/teme-2018-0004
28.
Hutt
,
S.
,
Clarke
,
A.
, and
Evans
,
H. P.
,
2018
, “
Generation of Acoustic Emission From the Running-in and Subsequent Micropitting of a Mixed-Elastohydrodynamic Contact
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
119
(
3
), pp.
270
280
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2017.11.011
29.
Wang
,
K.
,
Liu
,
X.
,
Wu
,
X.
, and
Zhu
,
Z.
,
2019
, “
Monitoring the Lack of Grease Condition of Rolling Bearing Using Acoustic Emission
,”
Int. J. Model. Identif. Control
,
31
(
1
), pp.
94
102
. 10.1504/IJMIC.2019.096814
30.
Geng
,
Z.
,
Puhan
,
D.
, and
Reddyhoff
,
T.
,
2019
, “
Using Acoustic Emission to Characterize Friction and Wear in Dry Sliding Steel Contacts
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
134
(
6
), pp.
394
407
. 10.1016/j.triboint.2019.02.014
31.
Raimondi
,
A. A.
, and
Boyd
,
J.
,
1985
, “
A Solution for the Finite Journal Bearing and Its Application to Analysis and Design: III
,”
ASLE Trans.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
194
209
. 10.1080/05698195808972330
32.
Raimondi
,
A. A.
, and
Boyd
,
J.
,
1985
, “
A Solution for the Finite Journal Bearing and Its Application to Analysis and Design: II
,”
ASLE Trans.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
175
193
. 10.1080/05698195808972329
33.
Raimondi
,
A. A.
, and
Boyd
,
J.
,
1985
, “
A Solution for the Finite Journal Bearing and Its Application to Analysis and Design: I
,”
ASLE Trans.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
159
174
. 10.1080/05698195808972328
34.
Burstein
,
L.
,
2011
, “Lubrication and Roughness,”
Tribology for Engineers: A Practical Guide
,
J. Paulo
Davim
, ed.,
Woodhead Publishing
,
UK
, pp.
65
120
.
35.
Yuan
,
W.
,
Long
,
J.
,
Ding
,
Y.
, and
Wang
,
G.
,
2018
, “
Statistical Contact Model of Rough Surfaces: The Role of Surface Tension
,”
Int. J Solids. Struct.
,
138
(
5
), pp.
217
223
. 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2018.01.014
36.
Bush
,
A. W.
,
Gibson
,
R. D.
, and
Thomas
,
T. R.
,
1975
, “
The Elastic Contact of a Rough Surface
,”
Wear
,
35
(
1
), pp.
87
111
. 10.1016/0043-1648(75)90145-3
37.
Yuan
,
Y.
,
Chen
,
J.
, and
Zhang
,
L.
,
2018
, “
Loading-Unloading Contact Model Between Three-Dimensional Fractal Rough Surfaces
,”
AIP Adv.
,
8
(
7
), p.
75017
. 10.1063/1.5027437
38.
Panda
,
M. K.
,
Etter
,
M.
,
Dinnebier
,
R. E.
, and
Naumov
,
P.
,
2017
, “
Acoustic Emission From Organic Martensites
,”
Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.
,
56
(
28
), pp.
8104
8109
. 10.1002/anie.201702359
39.
Pollock
,
A. A.
,
2011
, “Material Brittleness and the Energetics of Acoustic Emission,”
Experimental Mechanics on Emerging Energy Systems and Materials
, Vol.
5
,
T.
Proulx
, ed.,
Springer
,
New York
, pp.
73
79
.
40.
Liptai
,
R. G.
,
Harris
,
D. O.
, and
Tatro
,
C. A.
,
1972
,
Acoustic Emission
, Vol.
STP505
,
ASTM
,
Philadelphia
, pp.
3
10
. 10.1520/STP35377S
41.
Johnson
,
K. L.
,
Greenwood
,
J. A.
, and
Poon
,
S. Y.
,
1972
, “
A Simple Theory of Asperity Contact in Elastohydro-Dynamic Lubrication
,”
Wear
,
19
(
1
), pp.
91
108
. 10.1016/0043-1648(72)90445-0
42.
Yang
,
C.
, and
Persson
,
B. N. J.
,
2008
, “
Contact Mechanics: Contact Area and Interfacial Separation From Small Contact to Full Contact
,”
J. Phys. Condens. Matter
,
20
(
21
), p.
215214
. 10.1088/0953-8984/20/21/215214
43.
Mortier
,
R. M.
,
Orszulik
,
S. T.
, and
Fox
,
M. F.
,
2010
,
Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants
,
Springer
,
New York
, vol.
107115
.
44.
Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo
,
P. E. J.
, and
Huang
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Dislocation Annihilation in Plastic Deformation: I. Multiscale Irreversible Thermodynamics
,”
Acta Mater.
,
60
(
6–7
), pp.
2606
2614
. 10.1016/j.actamat.2012.01.027
45.
Trochidis
,
A.
, and
Polyzos
,
B.
,
1995
, “
Acoustic Emission During Plastic Deformation of Crystals: A Lattice-Dynamics Approach
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
78
(
1
), pp.
170
175
. 10.1063/1.360648
46.
Hosten
,
B.
,
1991
, “
Bulk Heterogeneous Plane Waves Propagation Through Viscoelastic Plates and Stratified Media With Large Values of Frequency Domain
,”
Ultrasonics
,
29
(
6
), pp.
445
450
. 10.1016/0041-624X(91)90074-I
47.
Sabin
,
S.
,
2000
, “
Understanding and Using Dynamic Stiffness—A Tutorial
,”
Orbit
,
2
(
Second quarter
), pp.
44
54
.
You do not currently have access to this content.