This paper presents the design and experimental verification of the Risø-B1 airfoil family for MW-size wind turbines with variable speed and pitch control. Seven airfoils were designed with thickness-to-chord ratios between 15% and 53% to cover the entire span of a wind turbine blade. The airfoils were designed to have high maximum lift and high design lift to allow a slender flexible blade while maintaining high aerodynamic efficiency. The design was carried out with a Risø in-house multi disciplinary optimization tool. Wind tunnel testing was done for Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24 in the VELUX wind tunnel, Denmark, at a Reynolds number of 1.6×106. For both airfoils the predicted target characteristics were met. Results for Risø-B1-18 showed a maximum lift coefficient of 1.64. A standard case of zigzag tape leading edge roughness caused a drop in maximum lift of only 3.7%. Cases of more severe roughness caused reductions in maximum lift between 12% and 27%. Results for the Risø-B1-24 airfoil showed a maximum lift coefficient of 1.62. The standard case leading edge roughness caused a drop in maximum lift of 7.4%. Vortex generators and Gurney flaps in combination could increase maximum lift up to 2.2 (32%).

Tangler, J. L., and Somers, D. M., 1995, “NREL Airfoil Families for HAWT’s,” Proc. WINDPOWER’95, Washington D.C., pp. 117–123.
Timmer, W. A., van Rooij, A., R.P.J.O.M., 2003, “Summary of the Delft University Wind Turbine Dedicated Airfoils,” AIAA-2003-0352.
Bjo¨rk, A., 1990, “Coordinates and Calculations for the FFA-W1-xxx, FFA-W2-xxx and Series of Airfoils for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” FFA TN 1990-15, Stockholm, Sweden.
Hill, D. M., and Garrad, A. D., 1988, “Design of Aerofoils for Wind Turbine Use,” Proc. IEA Symposium on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, Lyngby, Denmark.
, and
K. D.
, “
Design of Optimized Profiles for Stall Regulated HAWTs Part 1: Design Concepts and Method Formulation
Wind Eng.
, (
) pp.
Hoadley, D., Madsen, H. A., and Bouras, B., 1993, “Aerofoil Section Design and Assessment,” Final Rep. Contract JOUR 0079, The European Comisio´n DGXII.
Fuglsang, P., and Bak, C., 2004, “Development of the Risø Wind Turbine Airfoils,” J. Wind Energy, 7, pp. 145–162.
Fuglsang, P., and Dahl, K. S., 1997, “Multipoint Optimization of Thick High Lift Airfoil Wind Turbines,” Proc. EWEC’97, Dublin, Ireland, pp. 468–471.
Hicks, R. M., Murman, E. M., and Vanderplaats, G. N., 1974, “An Assessment of Airfoil Design by Numerical Optimization,” Tech. rep., NASA TM X-3092.
Fuglsang, P., Bak, C., Gaunaa, M., and Antoniou, I., 2003, “Wind tunnel Tests of Risø-B1-18 and Risø-B1-24,” Risø-R-1375(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Denmark, January.
Bak, C., Fuglsang, P., Gaunaa, M., and Antoniou, I., 2003, “Wind Tunnel Measurements on Two Risø-B1 Airfoils,” Proc. EWEC’2003, Madrid.
Fuglsang, P., Antoniou, I., Sørensen, N. N., and Madsen H., 1998, “Validation of a Wind Tunnel Testing Facility for Blade Surface Pressure Measurements,” Risø-R-981(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Denmark.
Drela, M., 1989, “XFOIL, An Analysis and Design system for Low Reynolds Number Airfoils,” Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics, 54 In Springer-Verlag Lec. Notes in Eng.
Michelsen, J. A., 1992, “Basis3D—A Platform for Development of Multiblock PDE Solvers,” Technical Report AFM 92-05, Technical University of Denmark.
Michelsen, J. A., 1994, “Block Structured Multigrid Solution of 2D and 3D elliptic PDE’s.” Technical Report AFM 94-06, Technical University of Denmark.
Sørensen, N. N., 1995, “General Purpose Flow Solver Applied to Flow over Hills,” Risø-R-827(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Denmark.
Menter, F. R., 1993, “Zonal Two Equation k-ω Turbulence Models for Aerodynamic Flows.” AIAA-932906.
Bertagnolio, F., Sørensen, N. N., Johansen, J., and Fuglsang, P., 2001, “Wind Turbine Airfoil Catalogue,” Risø-R-1280(EN), Risø National Laboratory, Denmark, pp. 152.
Sørensen, N. N., Michelsen, J. A., and Schreck, S., Navier-Stokes Predictions of the NREL Phase VI Rotor in the NASA Ames 80ft×120ft Wind Tunnel. J. Wind Energy 2002; 5:151–169.
Tangler, J. L., and Somers, D. M., 1987, “Status of the Special Purpose Airfoil Families,” Proc. WINDPOWER’87, San Fransisco.
Bjo¨rk, A., 1989, “Airfoil Design for Variable rpm Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines,” Proc., EWEC’89, Glasgow, Scotland.
Fuglsang, P., 2002, “Aerodynamic Design Guidelines For Wind Turbine Rotors,” Proc. 4th GRACM Congress on Computational Mechanics GRACM 2002, Patra, CD-rom.
Brooks, T. F., and Marcolini, M. A., 1984, “Airfoil Trailing Edge Flow Measurements and Comparison with Theory Incorporating Open Wind Tunnel Corrections,” AIAA-84-2266 AIAA/NASA 9th Aeroacoustic Conference.
You do not currently have access to this content.