The innovative ultra-compact combustor (UCC) is an alternative to traditional turbine engine combustors and has been shown to reduce the combustor length and offer potential improvements in combustion efficiency. Prior UCC configurations featured a circumferential combustion cavity positioned around the outside diameter (OD) of the engine. This configuration would be difficult to implement in a vehicle with a small, fixed diameter and had difficulty migrating the hot combustion products at the OD radially inward across an axial core flow to present a uniform temperature distribution to the first turbine stage. This study draws from preliminary computational analysis which enabled experimental testing of a new UCC configuration that featured a smaller diameter circumferential cavity that exhausted axially into a dilution zone positioned just upstream of the nozzle guide vanes. The combustor was sized as a replacement burner for the JetCat P90 RXi small-scale turbine engine and fit inside the engine casing. This combustor configuration achieved a 33% length reduction compared to the stock JetCat combustor and achieved comparable engine performance across a limited operating range. Self-sustained engine operation was achieved with a rotating compressor and turbine making this study the first to achieve operation of a UCC-powered turbine engine.