Designed experiments were conducted in this paper to study the effect of Au/Ni/Cu or Cu substrate pad metallization on the electromigration reliability of 96.5Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu flip-chip solder joints with Ti/Ni(V)/Cu under bump metallurgy (UBM) under a current stressing condition with an average current density of around at an ambient temperature of . Cross-sectional observations on current-stressed solder joints indicate that although Cu metallization results in severe voiding compared with Au/Ni/Cu metallization on the substrate side of the solder joint, the dominant failure has been identified as UBM consumption, and test vehicles with Cu metallization exhibit better electromigration reliability than those with Au/Ni/Cu metallization. The stronger durability against current stressing for test vehicles with Cu metallization may attribute to the lower UBM consumption rate due to the continuous Cu diffusion toward UBM as a result of the concentration gradient. The consumption of UBM is faster for test vehicles with Au/Ni/Cu metallization because Cu diffusion from the substrate pad is retarded by the Ni barrier.
Electromigration Reliability of 96.5Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu Flip-Chip Solder Joints With Au/Ni/Cu or Cu Substrate Pad Metallization
Lai, Y., Chiu, Y., and Lee, C. (March 27, 2009). "Electromigration Reliability of 96.5Sn–3Ag–0.5Cu Flip-Chip Solder Joints With Au/Ni/Cu or Cu Substrate Pad Metallization." ASME. J. Electron. Packag. June 2009; 131(2): 021002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3103945
Download citation file: