The current density distribution in a line-to-bump structure as a function of cross-sectional area ratio of the electrical conductor was investigated, as well as the effects of current crowding on electromigration and interfacial reaction in lead-free solder joints. Finite element analysis shows that the crowding factor is directly proportional to the cross-sectional area ratio between Cu line and contact opening at the cathode side. solder joints with Cu line in different widths were designed and tested under at for . The experiment results show that big voids induced by electromigration are only formed at the structure with a narrower line. Moreover, the growth of intermetallic compound layers, as well as dissolution of Cu at the cathode side, is accelerated by smaller current crowding, whereas impeded by a bigger one.
Current Crowding and its Effects on Electromigration and Interfacial Reaction in Lead-Free Solder Joints
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Lu, H., Yu, C., Li, P., and Chen, J. (August 1, 2008). "Current Crowding and its Effects on Electromigration and Interfacial Reaction in Lead-Free Solder Joints." ASME. J. Electron. Packag. September 2008; 130(3): 031008. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2957322
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