Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contributes to a significant portion of the injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes, falls, and sports collisions. The development of advanced countermeasures to mitigate these injuries requires a complete understanding of the tolerance of the human brain to injury. In this study, we developed a new method to establish human injury tolerance levels using an integrated database of reconstructed football impacts, subinjurious human volunteer data, and nonhuman primate data. The human tolerance levels were analyzed using tissue-level metrics determined using harmonized species-specific finite element (FE) brain models. Kinematics-based metrics involving complete characterization of angular motion (e.g., diffuse axonal multi-axial general evaluation (DAMAGE)) showed better power of predicting tissue-level deformation in a variety of impact conditions and were subsequently used to characterize injury tolerance. The proposed human brain tolerances for mild and severe TBI were estimated and presented in the form of injury risk curves based on selected tissue-level and kinematics-based injury metrics. The application of the estimated injury tolerances was finally demonstrated using real-world automotive crash data.