This work is based on the original concept of coupling two resonant vibration modes to reproduce insect wing kinematics and generate lift. The key issue is designing the geometry and the elastic properties of the artificial wings to achieve quadrature coupling of the bending and twisting motions using only one actuator. Qualitatively, this implies bringing the frequency of the two resonant modes closer. In the light of this challenge, an optimal wing configuration was determined for a micromachined polymer prototype three centimeters wide and validated through experimental modal analyses to illustrate the proximity of the frequencies of the bending and twisting modes. Then, a dedicated lift force measurement bench was developed and used to demonstrate a lift force equivalent to 110% of the prototype weight. For the first time, high-speed camera measurements of the wing motion confirmed that maximum lift was obtained as expected for bending and twisting motions in phase quadrature with a fully resonant motion of the wings using a single actuator.

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