Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) is the most common cause of stroke throughout the world. Patients with severe arterial stenosis and a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack are at high risk of recurring stroke. In an attempt to improve the clinical outcome of patients with severe, symptomatic ICAD, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and intracranial stenting have become treatment options over the last years. Follow-up imaging of patients with ICAD that underwent intracranial stenting is generally done using 2D digitally subtracted angiography. Since often the vessel path is curved and the neointimal hyperplasia (NH) is eccentric, in-stent restenosis (ISR) may be under- or overestimated using 2D techniques.

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