Angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from an existing vessel or a monolayer of endothelial cells. It is crucial during the processes of tissue and organ maintenance, wound healing, and development and also plays a crucial role in tumor growth. An understanding of this process is also critical from a tissue engineering perspective. Several biochemical factors such as VEGF, Angiopoietin I (Ang I), Angiopoietin II (Ang II), PLGF, PDGF, TNF α, TGF β, α-FGF, β-FGF, ENA/VASP  and biomechanical factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, interstitial flow, shear stress affect the formation of capillaries. While some of them are proangiogenic, others are anti-angiogenic. A balance in these factors is decisive to the characteristics of the capillaries formed.
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A Stochastic Field/Agent Model of Angiogenesis
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Das, A, Asada, H, Lauffenburger, D, & Kamm, R. "A Stochastic Field/Agent Model of Angiogenesis." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2009 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Lake Tahoe, California, USA. June 17–21, 2009. pp. 499-500. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2009-204115
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