The assumption of isotropic turbulence is commonly incorporated into models of internal combustion engine (ICE) in-cylinder flows. While preliminary analysis with two-dimensional velocity data indicates that the turbulence may tend to isotropy as the piston approaches TDC, the validity of this assumption has not been fully investigated, partially due to lack of three-component velocity data in ICEs. In this work, the velocity was measured using two-dimensional, three-component (2D-3C) particle image velocimetry in a single-cylinder, motored, research engine to investigate the evolution of turbulence anisotropy throughout the compression stroke. Invariants of the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor were calculated and visualized, through the Lumley triangle, to investigate turbulence states. Results showed the turbulence to be mostly anisotropic, with preferential tendency toward 2D axisymmetry at the beginning of the compression stroke and approaching isotropy near top-dead-center. Findings provide new insights into turbulence in dynamic, bounded flows to assist with the development of physics-based, quantitative models.