The turbine rotor inlet temperature of modern aero-engines has continuously increased in order to achieve higher thrust-to-weight ratio and thermal efficiency, which requires higher cooling effectiveness for turbine components. The turbine shroud is exposed to the blade tip leakage flow, and has become a common limiting factor for the turbine stage of advanced aero-engines. The three-dimensional numerical simulation on the unsteady film cooling characteristics of the high-pressure turbine shroud for an aero-engine under the rotor-stator interaction and the high blade rotation speed was conducted. The sliding grid technology was used to realize the relative movement between the turbine blade and the turbine shroud, and the rotor-stator interaction. Effects of the blade rotation, blowing ratios and the film jet direction on the unsteady film cooling performance of the high-pressure turbine shroud were revealed. It is found that the film cooling characteristics of the turbine shroud present an unsteady and periodic phenomenon. The blade tip clearance leakage flow, leakage vortex and mainstream suppression have important effects on the film cooling performance of the high-pressure turbine shroud. More attention should be paid to the insufficient cooling margin of the front row film holes due to coolant jet liftoff from the shroud surface under the high blowing ratio.