Research Papers: Design Automation

J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):061401-061401-8. doi:10.1115/1.4032266.

Anisotropic mesh adaptation has been used to accelerate computation in several engineering fields, and we show that it can also be used for topology optimization. We use a combination of filtered continuous sensitivities and filtered design variables to drive the mesh adaptation. The filtered design variables are computed for this purpose only, while the filtered sensitivities are used as input to the optimizer. We test mesh independence for a cantilever problem and also show results for two other test cases. Finally, speedup relative to isotropic adaptation is estimated at 50 using average element aspect ratios.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):061402-061402-12. doi:10.1115/1.4033038.

This paper investigates a multidisciplinary framework that simulates design decisions in a complex team-based product development in which engineers simultaneously work on a team project and individual projects. The proposed framework integrates collaborative design with (1) equilibrium analysis, (2) uncertainty modeling based on behavioral game-theory results, and (3) noncooperative decision making using decision analysis. In the proposed framework, noncooperative decision making is used to simulate engineers’ decisions about team-project commitment and to analyze potential free riding. Collaborative design is used to model design outcomes when engineers commit to the team project. Equilibrium analysis and behavioral game-theory results are used to infer uncertainty about other engineers’ decisions. Decision analysis is used to calculate expected values of decision alternatives. The proposed framework and the design decision making model are illustrated using a pressure vessel design as a team project conducted by two engineers: a design engineer and a materials engineer.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):061403-061403-9. doi:10.1115/1.4033238.

The authors of this work propose an algorithm that determines optimal search keyword combinations for querying online product data sources in order to minimize identification errors during the product feature extraction process. Data-driven product design methodologies based on acquiring and mining online product-feature-related data are presented with two fundamental challenges: (1) determining optimal search keywords that result in relevant product related data being returned and (2) determining how many search keywords are sufficient to minimize identification errors during the product feature extraction process. These challenges exist because online data, which is primarily textual in nature, may violate several statistical assumptions relating to the independence and identical distribution of samples relating to a query. Existing design methodologies have predetermined search terms that are used to acquire textual data online, which makes the resulting data acquired, a function of the quality of the search term(s) themselves. Furthermore, the lack of independence and identical distribution of text data from online sources impacts the quality of the acquired data. For example, a designer may search for a product feature using the term “screen,” which may return relevant results such as “the screen size is just perfect,” but may also contain irrelevant noise such as “researchers should really screen for this type of error.” A text mining algorithm is introduced to determine the optimal terms without labeled training data that would maximize the veracity of the data acquired to make a valid conclusion. A case study involving real-world smartphones is used to validate the proposed methodology.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):061404-061404-9. doi:10.1115/1.4033239.

This paper presents a novel mixed integer linear programing (MILP) formulation for finding the optimal layout of a fixed number of identical turbines that maximizes wind farm power generation. Previous MILP formulations with power maximizing objectives discretize the feasible space by using a grid of possible turbine locations. The proposed MILP formulation takes a different approach by allowing unrestricted placement of turbines, but treats wake cone overlap as a binary outcome. The rationale behind the proposed formulation is that the expansion of the feasible space for turbine placement in the proposed formulation would offset the disadvantage of using a lower fidelity binary wake cone overlap model. For small wind farms, the proposed formulation was able to produce superior layouts compared to a grid-based MILP formulation.

Topics: Wakes , Turbines , Wind , Wind farms
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):061405-061405-12. doi:10.1115/1.4033395.

Traditionally viewed as mere energy consumers, buildings have adapted, capitalizing on smart grid technologies and distributed energy resources to efficiently use and trade energy, as evident in net-zero energy buildings (NZEBs). In this paper, we examine the opportunities presented by applying net-zero to building communities (clusters). This paper makes two main contributions: one, it presents a framework for generating Pareto optimal operational strategies for building clusters; two, it examines the energy tradeoffs resulting from adaptive decisions in response to dynamic operation conditions. Using a building cluster simulator, the proposed approach is shown to adaptively and significantly reduce total energy cost.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):061406-061406-10. doi:10.1115/1.4033428.

Current surrogate modeling methods for time-dependent reliability analysis implement a double-loop procedure, with the computation of extreme value response in the outer loop and optimization in the inner loop. The computational effort of the double-loop procedure is quite high even though improvements have been made to improve the efficiency of the inner loop. This paper proposes a single-loop Kriging (SILK) surrogate modeling method for time-dependent reliability analysis. The optimization loop used in current methods is completely removed in the proposed method. A single surrogate model is built for the purpose of time-dependent reliability assessment. Training points of random variables and over time are generated at the same level instead of at two separate levels. The surrogate model is refined adaptively based on a learning function modified from time-independent reliability analysis and a newly developed convergence criterion. Strategies for building the surrogate model are investigated for problems with and without stochastic processes. Results of three numerical examples show that the proposed single-loop procedure significantly increases the efficiency of time-dependent reliability analysis without sacrificing the accuracy.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):061407-061407-10. doi:10.1115/1.4033426.

We compare the performance of human players against that of the efficient global optimization (EGO) algorithm for an NP-complete powertrain design and control problem. Specifically, we cast this optimization problem as an online competition and received 2391 game plays by 124 anonymous players during the first month from launch. We found that while only a small portion of human players can outperform the algorithm in the long term, players tend to formulate good heuristics early on that can be used to constrain the solution space. Such constraining of the search enhances algorithm efficiency, even for different game settings. These findings indicate that human-assisted computational searches are promising in solving comprehensible yet computationally hard optimal design and control problems, when human players can outperform the algorithm in a short term.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Research Papers: Design of Mechanisms and Robotic Systems

J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):062301-062301-9. doi:10.1115/1.4033393.

Contact-aided compliant mechanisms (CCMs) are synthesized via the material mask overlay strategy (MMOS) to trace desired nonsmooth paths. MMOS employs hexagonal cells to discretize the design region and engages negative circular masks to designate material states. To synthesize CCMs, the modified MMOS presented herein involves systematic mutation of five mask parameters through a hill climber search to evolve not only the continuum topology but also to position the rigid, interacting surfaces within some masks. To facilitate analysis with contact, boundary smoothing is performed by shifting boundary nodes of the evolving continuum. Various geometric singularities are subdued via hexagonal cells, and the V-notches at the continuum boundaries are alleviated. Numerous hexagonal cells get morphed into concave subregions as a consequence. Large deformation finite-element formulation with mean-value coordinates based shape functions is used to cater to the generic hexagonal shapes. Contact analysis is accomplished via the Newton–Raphson (NR) iteration with load incrementing in conjunction with the augmented Lagrange multiplier method and active set constraints. An objective function based on Fourier shape descriptors (FSDs) is minimized subject to suitable design constraints. Two examples of path-generating CCMs are presented, their performance compared with a commercial software and fabricated to establish the efficacy of the proposed synthesis method.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):062302-062302-11. doi:10.1115/1.4033338.

Singularities are one of the most important issues affecting the performance of parallel mechanisms. A parallel mechanism with less than six degrees of freedom (6DOF) is classed as having lower mobility. In addition to input–output singularities, such mechanisms potentially suffer from singularities among their constraints. Furthermore, the utilization of closed-loop subchains (CLSCs) may introduce additional singularities, which can strongly affect the motion/force transmission ability of the entire mechanism. In this paper, we propose a technique for the analysis of singularities occurring within planar CLSCs, along with a finite, dimensionless, frame invariant index, based on screw theory, for examining the closeness to these singularities. The integration of the proposed index with existing performance measures is discussed in detail and exemplified on a prototype industrial parallel mechanism.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):062303-062303-13. doi:10.1115/1.4033394.

The synthesis of functional molecular linkages is constrained by difficulties in fabricating nanolinks of arbitrary shapes and sizes. Thus, classical mechanism synthesis methods, which assume the ability to manufacture any designed links, cannot provide a systematic process for assembling such linkages. We propose a new approach to building functional mechanisms with prescribed mobility by using only elements from a predefined “link soup.” First, we enumerate an exhaustive set of topologies, while employing divide-and-conquer algorithms to control the generation and elimination of redundant topologies. Then, we construct the linkage arrangements for each valid topology. Finally, we output a set of feasible geometries through a positional analysis step that minimizes the error associated with closure of the loops in the linkage while avoiding geometric interference. The proposed systematic approach outputs the ATLAS of candidate mechanisms, which can be further processed for downstream applications. The resulting synthesis procedure is the first of its kind that is capable of synthesizing functional linkages with prescribed mobility constructed from a soup of primitive entities.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):064501-064501-7. doi:10.1115/1.4033396.

Noncircular bevel gear is applied to intersecting axes, realizing given function of transmission ratio. Currently, researches are focused mainly on gear with involute tooth profile and straight tooth lengthwise, while that with free-form tooth profile and curvilinear tooth lengthwise are seldom touched upon. Based on screw theory and equal arc-length mapping method, this paper proposes a generally applicable generating method for noncircular bevel gear with free-form tooth profile and curvilinear tooth lengthwise, covering instant screw axis, conjugate pitch surface, as well as the generator with free-form tooth profile and curvilinear tooth lengthwise. Further, the correctness of the proposed method is verified through illustrations of computerized design.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Design Innovation Paper

J. Mech. Des. 2016;138(6):065001-065001-9. doi:10.1115/1.4033085.

Servo-actuated presses may provide maximum pressing force at any ram position in the same manner that hydraulic presses do, while offering several benefits in terms of precision, energy-conversion efficiency, and simplicity, due to their lack of hydraulic circuitry and oil. Several press builders have developed servo-actuated presses; however, issues relating to overconstrained multi-axis architecture have been disregarded. This study proposes an innovative method to avoid overconstrained architectures in multi-axis presses, by implementing a family of modular parallel mechanisms that connect multiple servo-axes to the press ram. Parallel mechanisms, which can be applied in several fields of robotics and industrial automation, exhibit important benefits for the application at hand, including high-load capacity, stiffness, and compactness. A biaxial industrial servo press prototype with a nonoverconstrained and modular architecture was built and presented as a proof of concept. Each axis comprises a servomotor, a gearbox reducer, and a ball-screw transmission. It is shown that such a press may be constructed from commercially available components, achieving high energy efficiency and high press force with relatively simple construction. A direct comparison with an equivalent hydraulic-press model is carried out, thus highlighting the servo press energy efficiency.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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