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Research Papers: Design for Manufacture and the Life Cycle

Control of Process Settings for Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing With Sustainable Natural Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Yadunund Vijay

Engineering Product Development,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
Singapore 487372
e-mail: yadunund_vijay@mymail.sutd.edu.sg

Naresh D. Sanandiya

Engineering Product Development,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
Singapore 487372
e-mail: naresh_sanandiya@sutd.edu.sg

Stylianos Dritsas

Architecture and Sustainable Design,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
Singapore 487372
e-mail: stylianosdritsas@sutd.edu.sg

Javier G. Fernandez

Engineering Product Development,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
Singapore 487372
e-mail: javier.fernandez@sutd.edu.sg

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design for Manufacturing Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Mechanical Design. Manuscript received June 29, 2018; final manuscript received January 5, 2019; published online April 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Paul Witherell.

J. Mech. Des 141(8), 081701 (Apr 16, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: MD-18-1510; doi: 10.1115/1.4042624 History: Received June 29, 2018; Accepted January 09, 2019

We present a system for 3D printing large-scale objects using natural biocomposite materials, which comprises a precision extruder mounted on an industrial six-axis robot. This paper highlights work on controlling process settings to print filaments of desired dimensions while constraining the operating point to a region of maximum tensile strength and minimum shrinkage. Response surface models relating the process settings to the geometric and physical properties of extruded filaments are obtained through face-centered central composite designed experiments. Unlike traditional applications of this technique that identify a fixed operating point, the models are used to uncover dimensions of filaments obtainable within the operating boundaries of our system. Process-setting predictions are then made through multi-objective optimization of the models. An interesting outcome of this study is the ability to produce filaments of different shrinkage and tensile strength properties by solely changing process settings. As a follow-up, we identify optimal lateral overlap and interlayer spacing parameters to define toolpaths to print structures. If unoptimized, the material’s anisotropic shrinkage and nonlinear compression characteristics cause severe delamination, cross-sectional tapering, and warpage. Finally, we show the linear scalability of the shrinkage model in 3D space, which allows for suitable toolpath compensation to improve the dimensional accuracy of printed artifacts. We believe this first-ever study on the parametrization of the large-scale additive manufacture technique with biocomposites will serve as reference for future sustainable developments in manufacturing.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Hardware setup of the large-scale additive manufacturing system

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Fig. 2

Left: design space of 23 full factorial experiment with eight corner points and one center point; right: design space of 23 face-centered central composite design experiment with six additional axial points

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Fig. 3

Zones for dimensional measurement of filaments

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Fig. 4

Left: process parameters used in the study. Right: subset of a generated dataset.

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Fig. 5

Surface plots of the width of filaments in the wet state

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Fig. 6

Surface plots of the height of filaments in the wet state

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Fig. 7

Surface plots of the width of filaments in the dry state

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Fig. 8

Surface plots of the height of filaments in the dry state

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Fig. 9

Surface plots of the tensile strength of printed filaments as a function of process settings

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Fig. 10

Contour plot of a cross-sectional area of filaments in the wet state

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Fig. 11

Results of multi-objective optimization to predict process settings for desired dimensional and physical properties of single filaments

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Fig. 12

Left: test set of varying lateral overlap distance. Right: measurement of shear force using Instron.

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Fig. 13

Graph of average shear force required to separate laterally overlapping filaments

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Fig. 14

Repeating overlapping square units of edge length 60 mm

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Fig. 15

Graph of shrinkage in overall width as a function of the number of repeating units

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Fig. 16

Tapering of the cross section of 13 vertically stacked filaments leading to buckling

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Fig. 17

Tracking changes in the width of printed layers as layers are added above

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Fig. 18

Tracking changes in the height of printed layers as layers are added above

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Fig. 19

Graph of the dry heights of printed cylinders as a function of the number of printed layers

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Fig. 20

Filaments printed with first settings as obtained from multi-objective optimization

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Fig. 21

Left: near elimination of cross-sectional tapering as a result of optimized interlayer spacing. Right: a side view of an optimized wall showing the consistent height of the layers.

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Fig. 22

(a) Wind turbine blade design, (b) top view of the serpentine path, (c) the path generated for the entire blade, (d) five additional base layers added for shrinkage compensation, (e) printing along the generated path, (f) fused printed halves, and (g) finished turbine blade

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Fig. 23

Large-scale 3D-printed prototypes

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Fig. 24

Residual plots for the fitted model

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