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research-article

Combined Level-Set-XFEM-Density Topology Optimization of 4D Printed Structures undergoing Large Deformation

[+] Author and Article Information
Markus J Geiss

Ann and H.J. Smead Department, of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0429, USA
Markus.Geiss@Colorado.edu

Narasimha Boddeti

Singapore University of Technology and Design, SUTD Digital Manufacturing and Design Centre, 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372, Singapore
Gowri_Boddeti@SUTD.edu.sg

Oliver Weeger

Singapore University of Technology and Design, SUTD Digital Manufacturing and Design Centre, 8 Somapah Road, Singapore 487372, Singapore
Oliver_Weeger@SUTD.edu.sg

Kurt Maute

Ann and H.J. Smead Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0429, USA
kurt.maute@colorado.edu

Martin L. Dunn

College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, 1200 Larimer Street, Denver, CO 80217-3364, USA
Martin.Dunn@UCDenver.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4041945 History: Received April 30, 2018; Revised November 01, 2018

Abstract

Advancement of additive manufacturing is driving a need for design tools that exploit the increasing fabrication freedom. Multi-material, 3D printing allows for the fabrication of components from multiple materials with different thermal, mechanical and "active'' behavior that can be spatially arranged in 3D with a resolution on the order of tens of microns. This can be exploited to incorporate shape changing features into additively manufactured structures. 3D printing with a downstream shape change in response to an external stimulus such as temperature, humidity or light is referred to as 4D printing. In this paper, a design methodology to determine the material layout of 4D printed materials with internal, programmable strains is introduced to create active structures that undergo large deformation and assume a desired target shape upon heat activation. A level set approach together with the extended finite element method (XFEM) is combined with density-based topology optimization to describe the evolving multi-material design problem in the optimization process. A finite deformation hyperelastic thermomechanical model is used together with a higher order XFEM scheme to accurately predict the behavior of nonlinear slender structures during the design evolution. Examples are presented to demonstrate the unique capabilities of the proposed framework. Numerical predictions of optimized shape-changing structures are compared to 4D printed physical specimen and good agreement is achieved. Overall, a systematic design approach for creating 4D printed active structures with geometrically nonlinear behavior is presented which yields non-intuitive material layouts to achieve target shapes of various complexities.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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