0
Research Papers: Design Education

The Prototype for X Framework: Assessing Impact on Self-Reported Prototyping Behavior of Student Designers

[+] Author and Article Information
Jessica Menold

Mem. ASME
School of Engineering Design and
Professional Programs,
Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: Jdm5407@psu.edu

Kathryn Jablokow

School of Engineering Design and
Professional Programs,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Timothy Simpson

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Education Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received April 9, 2018; final manuscript received October 9, 2018; published online January 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Gul E. Okudan Kremer.

J. Mech. Des 141(4), 042001 (Jan 11, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: MD-18-1304; doi: 10.1115/1.4041781 History: Received April 09, 2018; Revised October 09, 2018

A significant gap exists between engineering students' perceptions of prototypes and prototyping abilities and professionals' perceptions and abilities. Structured prototyping frameworks have recently been developed and proposed as a means to help students close this gap, but the effects of these frameworks on students' behavior have not been assessed. The purpose of this work is to investigate if and how a structured prototyping framework affects the self-reported prototyping behaviors of engineering students. Understanding how structured prototyping frameworks affect students can provide educators with a deeper understanding of the way their students adopt and understand design methods. A mixed method study is presented. A 15-item survey and two open-ended questions were distributed to 235 students in a junior-level mechanical engineering design class in order to capture self-reported prototyping behavior. Quantitative results indicate that significant differences in engineering students' prototyping behaviors exist across time and between groups. Results from qualitative analysis indicate that students in the control group focused solely on improving technical quality, while students in both experimental groups focused on a wider range of design qualities. This study is the first to demonstrate that a structured prototyping framework can affect engineering students' self-reported prototyping behaviors during design activities.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Carberry, A. R. , Lee, H.-S. , and Ohland, M. W. , 2010, “ Measuring Engineering Design Self-Efficacy,” J. Eng. Educ., 99(1), pp. 71–79. [CrossRef]
Lemons, G. , Carberry, A. , Swan, C. , Jarvin, L. , and Rogers, C. , 2010, “ The Benefits of Model Building in Teaching Engineering Design,” Des. Stud., 31(3), pp. 288–309. [CrossRef]
Adams, R. S. , Turns, J. , and Atman, C. J. , 2003, “ Educating Effective Engineering Designers: The Role of Reflective Practice,” Des. Stud., (3), pp. 275–294.
Yang, M. C. , 2005, “ A Study of Prototypes, Design Activity, and Design Outcome,” Des. Stud., 26(6), pp. 649–669. [CrossRef]
Neeley, L. W. , Lim, K. , Zhu, A. , and Yang, M. C. , 2013, “ Building Fast to Think Faster: Exploiting Rapid Prototyping to Accelerate Ideation During Early Stage Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-12635.
Viswanathan, V. K. , and Linsey, J. S. , 2009, “ Enhancing Student Innovation: Physical Models in the Idea Generation Process,” 39th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, San Antonio, TX, Oct. 18–21.
Deininger, M. , Daly, S. R. , Sienko, K. H. , and Lee, J. C. , 2017, “ Novice Designers' Use of Prototypes in Engineering Design,” Des. Stud., 51, pp. 25–65. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Camburn, B. , Dunlap, B. , Gurjar, T. , Hamon, C. , Green, M. , Jensen, D. , Crawford, R. , Otto, K. , and Wood, K. , 2015, “ A Systematic Method for Design Prototyping,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137(8), p. 081102. [CrossRef]
Christie, E. J. , Jensen, D. D. , Buckley, R. T. , Menefee, D. A. , Ziegler, K. K. , Wood, P. K. L. , and Crawford, R. H. , 2012, “ Prototyping Strategies: Literature Review and Identification of Critical Variables,” American Society for Engineering Education Conference, San Antonio, TX, June 10–13.
Menold, J. , Jablokow, K. W. , and Simpson, T. W. , 2017, “ Prototype for X (PFX): A Holistic Framework for Structuring Prototyping Methods to Support Engineering Design,” Des. Stud., 50, pp. 70–112.
Dunlap, B. U. , Hamon, C. L. , Camburn, B. A. , Crawford, R. H. , Green, M. G. , and Wood, K. L. , 2014, “ Hueristics-Based Prototyping Strategy Formation—Development and Testing of a New Prototype Planning Tool,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2014-39959.
Gill, C. , Sanders, E. , and Shim, S. , 2011, “ Prototypes as Inquiry, Visualization and Communication,” 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, London, Sept. 8–9, pp. 672–677.
Brereton, M. , and Mcgarry, B. , 2000, “ An Observational Study of How Objects Support Engineering Design Thinking and Communication: Implications for the Design of Tangible Media,” SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI), Hague, The Netherlands, Apr. 1–6, pp. 1–6. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=332434
Dow, S. , Glassco, A. , and Kass, J. , 2011, “ The Effect of Parallel Prototyping on Design Performance, Learning, and Self-Efficacy,” Stanford Tech Report, p. 10.
Viswanathan, V. K. , and Linsey, J. S. , 2013, “ Training Future Designers: A Study on the Role of Physical Models,” ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, June 23–26.
Andreasen, M. M. , and Hein, L. , 1987, Integrated Product Development, IFS Publications, London.
Bucciarelli, L. L. , 1994, Designing Engineers, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Elsen, C. , Häggman, A. , Honda, T. , and Yang, M. C. , 2012, “ Representation in Early Stage Design: An Analysis of the Influence of Sketching and Prototyping in Design Projects,” ASME Paper No. DETC2012-70248.
Lauff, C. , Kotys-Schwartz, D. , and Rentschler, M. E. , 2017, “ Perceptions of Prototypes: Pilot Study Comparing Students and Professionals,” ASME Paper No. DETC2017-68117.
Menold, J. , Jablokow, K. W. , Simpson, T. W. , and Waterman, E. A. , 2016, “ The Prototype for X (PFX) Framework: Assessing Its Impact on Students´ Prototyping Awareness,” American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference and Exposition, New Orleans, LA, June 26–29, Paper No. 16011 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304998411_The_Prototype_for_X_PFX_Framework_Assessing_Its_Impact_on_Students'_Prototyping_Awareness.
Gerber, E. , and Carroll, M. , 2012, “ The Psychological Experience of Prototyping,” Des. Stud., 33(1), pp. 64–84. [CrossRef]
Menold, J. , Simpson, T. W. , and Jablokow, K. W. , 2018, “ The Prototype for X Framework: Exploring the Effects of a Structured Prototyping Framework on Functional Prototypes,” Res. Eng. Des. (epub).
Kuo, T. C. , Huang, S. H. , and Zhang, H. C. , 2001, “ Design for Manufacture and Design for ‘X’: Concepts, Applications, and Perspectives,” Comput. Ind. Eng., 41(3), pp. 241–260. [CrossRef]
Menold, J. , Simpson, T. W. , and Jablokow, K. W. , 2016, “ The Prototype for X (PFX) Framework: Assessing the Impact of PFX on Desirability, Feasibility, and Viability of End Designs,” ASME Paper No. DETC2016-60225.
IDEO, 2011, “ Human-Centred Design Toolkit,” IDEO, accessed July 12, 2013, http://www.ideo.com/work/human-centered-design-toolkit/
Brown, T. , 2008, “ Design Thinking,” Harvard Bus. Rev., 86(6), pp. 84–92.
Menold, J. , Jablokow, K. W. , and Simpson, T. W. , 2018, “ The Prototype for X Framework: Exploring the Effects of a Structured Prototyping Framework on Functional Prototypes,” Res. Eng. Des. (epub).
Kelley, T. , and Kelley, D. , 2013, “ Creative Confidence: Unleashing the Creative Potential Within Us All,” Bus. Source, pp. 1–8.
Ulrich, K. T. , and Eppinger, S. D. , 2012, Product Design and Development, Vol. 384, McGraw Hill, New York, p. 415.
Messick, S. , 1995, “ Validity of Psychological Assessment,” Am. Psychol., 50(9), pp. 741–749. [CrossRef]
Bandura, A. , 2006, “ Guide for Constructing Self-Efficacy Scales,” Self-Efficacy Beliefs Adolescents, Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, pp. 307–337.
Vetterli, C. , Hoffmann, F. , Brenner, W. , Eppler, M. J. , and Uebernickel, F. , 2012, “ Designing Innovation: Prototypes and Team Performance in Design Thinking,” 23rd International Society of Professional Innovation Management, pp. 1–11.
Jobst, B. , and Meinel, C. , 2014, “ How Prototyping Helps to Solve Wicked Problems,” Design Thinking Research, Springer, Berlin, pp. 105–113.
Walker, M. , Takayama, L. , and Landay, J. A. , 2002, “ High-Fidelity or Low-Fidelity, Paper or Computer? Choosing Attributes When Testing Web Prototypes,” Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, pp. 661–665.
Lim, Y.-K. , Stolterman, E. , and Tenenberg, J. , 2008, “ The Anatomy of Prototypes,” ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 15(2), pp. 1–27. [CrossRef]
Boy, G. A. , 2013, Orchestrating Human-Centered Design, Springer, London.
Cartwright, A. J. , 1997, “ Interactive Prototyping—A Challenge for Computer Based Design,” Res. Eng. Des., 9(1), pp. 10–19. [CrossRef]
Beyer, H. , 2010, “ User-Centered Agile Methods,” Synth. Lect. Hum.-Cent. Inf., 3(1), pp. 1–71.
Ungar, J. , and White, J. , 2008, “ Agile User Centered Design,” 26th Annual CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '08), Apr. 5–10, p. 2167.
Sonderegger, A. , Uebelbacher, A. , Pugliese, M. , and Sauer, J. , 2014, “ The Influence of Aesthetics in Usability Testing: The Case of Dual-Domain Products,” SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Toronto, ON, Canada, Apr. 26–May 1, pp. 21–30.
Reimann, M. , Zaichkowsky, J. , Neuhaus, C. , Bender, T. , and Weber, B. , 2010, “ Aesthetic Package Design: A Behavioral, Neural, and Psychological Investigation,” J. Consum. Psychol., 20(4), pp. 431–441. [CrossRef]
Lin, J. , and Seepersad, C. , 2007, “ Empathic Lead Users: The Effects of Extraordinary User Experiences on Customer Needs Analysis and Product Redesign,” ASME Paper No. DETC2007-35302.
Genco, N. , Johnson, D. , Hoelttae-Otto, K. , and Seepersad, C. C. , 2012, “ A Study of the Effectiveness of Empathic Experience Design as a Creativity Technique,” ASME Paper No. DETC2011-48256.
Bogers, M. , and Horst, W. , 2014, “ Collaborative Prototyping: Cross-Fertilization of Knowledge in Prototype-Driven Problem Solving,” J. Prod. Innovation Manage., 31(4), pp. 744–764. [CrossRef]
MAGUIRE, M. , 2001, “ Methods to Support Human-Centred Design,” Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud., 55(4), pp. 587–634. [CrossRef]
Dow, S. P. , Glassco, A. , and Kass, J. , 2009, “ The Effect of Parallel Prototyping on Design Performance, Learning, and Self-Efficacy,” Stanford Technical Report, Vol. 10.
Macomber, B. , and Yang, M. , 2011, “ The Role of Sketch Finish and Style in User Responses to Early State Design Concepts,” ASME Paper No. DETC2011-48714.
Eck, D. V. , 2010, “ Explaining and Relating Different Engineering Models of Functional Decomposition,” Design Research Society, pp. 1–11.
Ha, A. Y. , and Porteus, E. L. , 1995, “ Optimal Timing of Reviews in Concurrent Design for Manufacturability,” Manage. Sci., 41(9), pp. 1431–1447. [CrossRef]
Thomke, S. , and Bell, D. E. , 2001, “ Sequential Testing in Product Development,” Manage. Sci., 47(2), pp. 308–323. [CrossRef]
Thomke, S. , 1998, “ Managing Experimentation in the Design of New Products,” Manage. Sci., 44(6), pp. 743–762. [CrossRef]
Stone, R. B. , and Wood, K. L. , 2000, “ Development of a Functional Basis for Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 122(4), pp. 359–370. [CrossRef]
Wall, M. B. , Ulrich, K. T. , and Flowers, W. C. , 1992, “ Evaluating Prototyping Technologies for Product Design,” Res. Eng. Des., 3(3), pp. 163–177. [CrossRef]
Viswanathan, V. K. , and Linsey, J. S. , 2012, “ Physical Models and Design Thinking: A Study of Functionality, Novelty and Variety of Ideas,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(9), p. 091004. [CrossRef]
Guido, G. , Prete, M. I. , and Sammarco, L. , 2010, “ Prototypes Versus Examples: A New Model of Online Credibility for Commercial Websites,” J. Targeting, Meas. Anal. Mark., 18(1), pp. 3–16. [CrossRef]
Anderson, E. W. , Fornell, C. , and Lehmann, D. R. , 1994, “ Customer Satisfaction, Market Share, and Profitability: Findings From Sweden,” J. Mark., 58(3), pp. 53–66. [CrossRef]
Boothroyd, G. , 1994, “ Product Design for Manufacture and Assembly,” Comput.-Aided Des., 26(7), pp. 505–520. [CrossRef]
Ben-Arieh, D. , and Qian, L. , 2003, “ Activity-Based Cost Management for Design and Development Stage,” Int. J. Prod. Econ., 83(2), pp. 169–183. [CrossRef]
Dahan, E. , and Mendelson, H. , 2001, “ An Extreme-Value Model of Concept Testing,” Manage. Sci., 47(1), p. 102. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, H.-F. , and Shannon, S. E. , 2005, “ Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis,” Qual. Health Res., 15(9), pp. 1277–1288. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, Y. , and Wildemuth, B. M. , 2009, “ Qualitative Analysis of Content,” Applications of Social Research Methods to Questions in Information and Library Science, Libraries Unlimited, Westport CT, p. 421.
Kriesi, C. , Blindheim, J. , Bjelland, Ø. , and Steinert, M. , 2016, “ Creating Dynamic Requirements Through Iteratively Prototyping Critical Functionalities,” Procedia CIRP, pp. 790–795.
Timmermans, S. , and Tavory, I. , 2012, “ Theory Construction in Qualitative Research: From Grounded Theory to Abductive Analysis,” Sociol. Theory, 30(3), pp. 167–186. [CrossRef]
Strauss, A. , and Corbin, J. M. , 1998, “ Open Coding,” Basics of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, New York, pp. 101–121.
MacDonald, J. H. , 2009, “ Kruskal-Wallis Test,” Biological Handbook of Statistics, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 165–172.
Chan, Y. , and Walmsley, R. P. , 1997, “ Learning and Understanding the Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis-of-Variance-by-Ranks Test for Differences Among Three or More Independent Groups,” Phys. Therapy, 77(12), pp. 1755–1762. [CrossRef]
Houde, S. , and Hill, C. , 1997, “ What Do Prototypes Prototype?,” Handbook of Human Computer Interaction, Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, CA, pp. 1–16.
Starkey, E. , Toh, C. A. , and Miller, S. R. , 2016, “ Abandoning Creativity: The Evolution of Creative Ideas in Engineering Design Course Projects,” Des. Stud., 47, pp. 47–72. [CrossRef]
Siegel, S. , and Castellan, N. J. , 1988, Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed., American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Saunders, M. N. , Seepersad, C. , and Ho¨ltta¨-Otto, K. , 2011, “ The Characteristics of Innovative, Mechanical Products,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Felder, R. M. , and Brent, R. , 2003, “ Designing and Teaching Courses to Satisfy the ABET Engineering Criteria,” J. Eng. Educ., 92(1), pp. 7–25. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Relationship between prototyping frameworks, students, and design outcomes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Timeline and organization of data collection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Example final prototypes produced in experiment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Distribution of audience codes at time 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Distribution of audience codes at time 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Distribution of purpose codes at time 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Distribution of purpose codes at time 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Distribution of method codes at time 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Distribution of method codes at time 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Distribution of evolution codes at time 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Distribution of evolution codes at time 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Distributions of desirability scores for group A

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Distributions of feasibility scores for group A

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Distributions of viability scores for group A

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Distributions of desirability scores for group

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Distributions of feasibility scores for group B

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Distributions of viability scores for group B

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In