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Review Article

A Review of High-Speed Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator Pumps in Aerospace Applications: Challenges and Solutions

[+] Author and Article Information
Qun Chao

State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and
Mechatronic Systems,
Zhejiang University,
No. 38 Zheda Road, Xihu District,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: chao_qun@zju.edu.cn

Junhui Zhang

State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and
Mechatronic Systems,
Zhejiang University,
No. 38 Zheda Road, Xihu District,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: benzjh@zju.edu.cn

Bing Xu

State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and
Mechatronic Systems,
Zhejiang University,
No. 38 Zheda Road, Xihu District,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: bxu@zju.edu.cn

Hsinpu Huang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Zhejiang University,
No. 38 Zheda Road, Xihu District,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: 3140105119@zju.edu.cn

Min Pan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, Avon, UK
e-mail: M.Pan@bath.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Power Transmission and Gearing Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received June 1, 2018; final manuscript received September 19, 2018; published online January 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Yu-Tai Lee.

J. Mech. Des 141(5), 050801 (Jan 11, 2019) (13 pages) Paper No: MD-18-1413; doi: 10.1115/1.4041582 History: Received June 01, 2018; Revised September 19, 2018

The continued development of electro-hydrostatic actuators (EHAs) in aerospace applications has put forward an increasing demand upon EHA pumps for their high power density. Besides raising the delivery pressure, increasing the rotational speed is another effective way to achieve high power density of the pump, especially when the delivery pressure is limited by the strength of materials. However, high-speed operating conditions can lead to several challenges to the pump design. This paper reviews the current challenges including the cavitation, flow and pressure ripples, tilting motion of rotating group and heat problem, associated with a high-speed rotation. In addition, potential solutions to the challenges are summarized, and their advantages and limitations are analyzed in detail. Finally, future research trends in EHA pumps are suggested. It is hoped that this review can provide a full understanding of the speed limitations for EHA pumps and offer possible solutions to overcome them.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The axial piston pump used in the EHA system: (a) schematic of an EHA system and (b) schematic of an axial piston pump

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Fig. 2

Relationship between a maximum rotational speed and a volumetric displacement for three different aerospace pumps [12] (Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Ltd. copyright 2017)

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Fig. 3

Cavitation induced by the jet flow: (a) jet flow formed between the cylinder wall and relief groove of the valve plate and (b) detection of the cavitation [31] (Reprinted with permission from IEEE Proceedings copyright 2011)

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Fig. 4

Centrifugal effect on the cylinder pressure in the radial direction [34]

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Fig. 5

Experimental results for the relationship between the delivery flow rate and the rotational speed [34]

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Fig. 6

Cavitation damage on the components of an axial piston pump: (a) valve plate [36], (b) cylinder block [41] (Reprinted with permission of SAE International copyright 2000; permission conveyed through Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.), and (c) slipper

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Fig. 7

Spherical design for the cylinder block bottom surface to reduce pressure losses: (a) velocity of the hydraulic fluids entering the cylinder chamber and (b) comparison of the circumferential velocity between the spherical and flat designs for the cylinder block bottom surface

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Fig. 8

Schematic of the PEV [56]

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Fig. 9

Effect of the damping hole on the jet flow at the relief groove

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Fig. 10

Cross angle in an axial piston pump [84] (Reprinted by permission of Springer Nature copyright 2016)

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Fig. 11

Schematic of three types of check valves: (a) simple check valve [59], (b) highly dynamic control valve [78], and (c) heavily damped check valve [89]

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Fig. 12

Comparison between standard and “male” slippers: (a) standard “female” slipper and (b) “male” slipper

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Fig. 13

Comparison between positive-force and fixed-clearance retaining mechanisms: (a) positive-force retaining mechanism and (b) fixed-clearance retaining mechanism

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Fig. 14

Comparison between three types of pistons [111]: (a) hollow piston, (b) capped piston, and (c) filled piston

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Fig. 15

Tilting motion of the cylinder block due to the centrifugal effect

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Fig. 16

Insert in the pump casing to reduce churning loss [176] (Reprinted with permission of H. Murrenhoff copyright 2013): (a) configuration of an insert and (b) effect of the insert on the turbulent flow in a pump casing

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