Research Papers: Design Automation

Thermal Performance Optimization in Electric Vehicle Power Trains by Locally Orthotropic Surface Layer Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Mario Petrovic

Department of Mechanical Engineering and
Science Graduate School of Engineering,
Kyoto University,
Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
e-mail: petrovic.mario.7e@kyoto-u.ac.jp

Tsuyoshi Nomura

Toyota Central R & D Labs,
Nagakute 480-1192, Japan
e-mail: nomu2@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp

Takayuki Yamada

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Science,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Kyoto University,
Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
e-mail: takayuki@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Kazuhiro Izui

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Science,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Kyoto University,
Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
e-mail: izui@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Shinji Nishiwaki

Department of Mechanical
Engineering and Science,
Graduate School of Engineering,
Kyoto University,
Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
e-mail: shinji@prec.kyoto-u.ac.jp

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received October 10, 2017; final manuscript received August 8, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: James K. Guest.

J. Mech. Des 140(11), 111413 (Sep 12, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: MD-17-1681; doi: 10.1115/1.4041220 History: Received October 10, 2017; Revised August 08, 2018

In this paper, the application of orthotropic material orientation optimization for controlling heat flow in electric car power trains is presented. The design process is applied to a case model, which conducts heat while storing heat-sensitive electronic components. The core of the case is designed using a low thermal conductivity material on order to focus the heat flow into the surface layer, which is designed using a high thermal conductivity material. Material orthotropy is achieved in the surface layer of the case by removing the material at points determined by the optimization analysis. For this purpose, an orthotropic material orientation optimization method was extended to calculate optimal material distribution. This is achieved by transforming the initially obtained optimal orientation vector field into a scalar field through the use of coupled time-dependent nonisotropic Helmholtz equations. Multiple parameters allow the control of the scalar field and therefore the control over material distribution in accordance to the optimal orientation. This allows the material distribution pattern to be scaled depending on the desired manufacturing method. The analysis method is applied to divert heat flow from a specific section of the model while focusing the heat flow to another section. The results are shown for a model with a 0.1 mm thick surface layer of copper and are compared to those results from several other materials and layer thicknesses. Finally, the manufactured design is presented.

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Fig. 2

Surface layer local material distribution

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Fig. 9

Surface layer material distribution

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Fig. 10

Local surface layer material distribution: (a) top side view and (b) bottom side view

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Fig. 11

Manufactured prototype: (a) top side view and (b) bottom side view

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Fig. 6

Temperature values: optimized orthotropic surface layer

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Fig. 7

Local temperature values: (a) top side view and (b) bottom side view

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Fig. 8

Comparison of temperature values for different surface layers

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Fig. 3

Example for material distribution calculation: (a) results of Eq. (16) and (b) result of Eqs. (18) and (19)

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Fig. 4

Case model: top side and bottom side views

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Fig. 5

Temperature values: isotropic surface layer



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