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Research Papers: Design Automation

Homogenization of Mechanical Properties for Material Extrusion Periodic Lattice Structures Considering Joint Stiffening Effects

[+] Author and Article Information
Sang-In Park

Digital Manufacturing and
Design (DManD) Centre,
Singapore University of Technology and Design,
8 Somapah Road,
Singapore 487372;
George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
813 Fest Drive NW,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mails: sangin_park@sutd.edu.sg;
spark339@gatech.edu

David W. Rosen

George W. Woodruff School
of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
813 Fest Drive NW,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: david.rosen@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received March 23, 2018; final manuscript received June 21, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Andres Tovar.

J. Mech. Des 140(11), 111414 (Sep 12, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: MD-18-1245; doi: 10.1115/1.4040704 History: Received March 23, 2018; Revised June 21, 2018

Many engineering applications utilize periodic lattice structures to take advantage of their favorable and tailorable mechanical properties. However, manufacturing the structures and evaluating their mechanical properties are still challenging. Additive manufacturing (AM) processes offer an alternative method to fabricate periodic lattice structures but the processes only approximate bounding part surfaces. Periodic lattice structures generally have two important geometrical characteristics, large bounding surfaces, and a large number of joints. Since geometric approximation errors on large bounding surfaces critically affect mechanical properties of the structures, designers and engineers should incorporate this degradation into mechanical property estimation procedures. In addition, the effects of joints should be analyzed in the estimation process, because joints reduce struts lengths, and as a result, they add stiffness to lattice structures. This paper presents a new homogenization approach to estimate mechanical properties of additively manufactured periodic lattice structures that is based on semirigid joint frame elements, and it takes into account effects of geometric approximation errors and joint stiffening. Effective structural parameters of a semirigid joint frame element are calculated from an as-fabricated voxel model to incorporate the geometric approximation errors. The semirigid joint frame element is integrated into a discrete homogenization process to evaluate joint stiffening effects. This paper reports results of parametric studies that investigate effects of AM process and joint properties on periodic lattice structures fabricated by material extrusion. This paper also compares estimates from the proposed approach and conventional homogenization approaches with test results. The comparison shows that the proposed method provides estimates that are more accurate.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram for converting volumatric model to semirigid joint frame model

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Fig. 2

Conceptual configurations for deformed and undeformed semirigid joint frame elements

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Fig. 3

As-fabricated voxel modeling procedure [17] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier 2016)

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Fig. 4

Determination procedure for effective structural parameters of a semirigid joint frame element

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Fig. 5

Numerical model using as-fabricated model: (a) tension and (b) bending

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Fig. 6

Displacement field approximation:(a) axial displacement field and (b) lateral displacement field

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Fig. 7

Joint models: (a) cube—0 overlap, (b) cube—3 overlaps, (c) cube—5 overlaps, and (d) diamond—4 overlaps

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Fig. 8

Structural element parameters for varying build angles: (a) effective strut diameter, (b) eccentricity, and (c) fixity

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Fig. 9

Structural element parameters for varying raster angles: (a) effective strut diameter, (b) eccentricity, and (c) fixity

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Fig. 10

Deposition path near joints: (a) 0 deg build angle, (b) 45 deg build angle, and (c) 90 deg build angle

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Fig. 11

Overview of homogenization procedure for elastic properties

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Fig. 12

Cubic unit cell and node classification [23] (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier 2014)

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Fig. 13

Overview of homogenization procedure for yield strength

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Fig. 14

Selected unit cell topologies: (a) cubic unit cell, (b) octet-truss unit cell, and (c) diamond unit cell

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Fig. 15

Normalized homogenized elastic modulus: (a) cubic unit cell, (b) octet-truss unit cell and (c) diamond unit cell

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Fig. 16

Normalized homogenized yield strength: (a) cubic unit cell, (b) octet-truss unit cell and (c) diamond unit cell

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Fig. 17

Comparison of homogenized mechanical properties in cubic lattice structure: (a) normalized elastic modulus and (b) normalized yield strength

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Fig. 18

Comparison of homogenized mechanical properties in diamond lattice structure: (a) normalized elastic modulus and (b) normalized yield strength

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