0
Research Papers: Design Theory and Methodology

Implementation of Design Rules for Perception Into a Tool for Three-Dimensional Shape Generation Using a Shape Grammar and a Parametric Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Marta Perez Mata

Department of Management Engineering,
Technical University of Denmark,
Kongens, Lyngby 2800, Denmark
e-mail: mapma@dtu.dk

Saeema Ahmed-Kristensen

School of Design
Royal College of Art,
London SW7 1EU, UK
e-mail: s.ahmed-kristensen@rca.ac.uk

Kristina Shea

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical and
Process Engineering,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: kshea@ethz.ch

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Theory and Methodology Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received January 31, 2017; final manuscript received October 9, 2017; published online October 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Katja Holtta-Otto.

J. Mech. Des 141(1), 011101 (Oct 08, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MD-17-1083; doi: 10.1115/1.4040169 History: Received January 31, 2017; Revised October 09, 2017

The user experience of a product is recognized as having an increasing importance in particular in consumer products. Current approaches to designing user experiences are not easily translated to languages that a computer can understand. This paper examines a particular aspect of user experience, namely perception of the aesthetics of a product, to formalize this to rules, which are embedded into a tool to generate design. Investigating the perception of consumers is key to designing for their aesthetic preferences. Previous research has shown that consumers and designers often perceive the same products differently. This paper aims to embed rules on perception into a tool to support designers during design synthesis. Aesthetic design rules connecting perceptions with aesthetic features were integrated into a set grammar and a parametric modeling tool, and applied to the particular case of vases. The generated tool targeted the creation of vases with the perception of beautiful, elegant, and exciting. Results show that it is possible to generate beautiful, elegant, and exciting vases following the three aesthetic design rules, i.e., tall, simple, and curvy. The main contribution of this paper is the method used to incorporate information on perception into the set grammar and the parametric model. The tool is additionally proposed for supporting designers during design synthesis of shapes. The results are valid for vases but the method can be applied to other perceptions and product categories.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Design , Shapes
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Weinberg, P. , and Gottwald, W. , 1982, “ Impulsive Consumer Buying as a Result of Emotions,” J. Bus. Res., 10(1), pp. 43–57. [CrossRef]
Kotler, P. , and Rath, G. A. , 1984, “ Design: A Powerful but Neglected Strategic Tool,” J. Bus. Strategy, 5(2), pp. 16–21. [CrossRef]
Ulrich, K. T. , 2006, “ Aesthetics in Design,” Design: Creation of Artifacts in Society, Pontificia Press, Quito, Ecuador.
Bloch, P. H. , 1995, “ Seeking the Ideal Form: Product Design and Consumer Response,” J. Mark, 59(3), pp. 16–29. [CrossRef]
Govers, P. C. M. , and Schoormans, J. P. L. , 2005, “ Product Personality and Its Influence on Consumer Preference,” J. Consum. Mark, 22(4), pp. 189–197. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, S. , and Boelskifte, P. , 2006, “ Investigation of Designers Intentions and a Users´ Perception of Product Character,” NordDesign Conference, Reykjavik, Iceland, Aug. 16–18, pp. 372–381.
Hsu, S. , Chuang, M. , and Chang, C. , 2000, “ A Semantic Differential Study of Designers' and Users' Product Form Perception,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 25(4), pp. 375–391. [CrossRef]
Schütte, S. , and Eklund, J. , 2005, “ Design of Rocker Switches for Work-Vehicles—An Application of Kansei Engineering,” Appl. Ergon., 36(5), pp. 557–567. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hsiao, K.-A. , and Chen, L.-L. , 2006, “ Fundamental Dimensions of Affective Responses to Product Shapes,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 36(6), pp. 553–564. [CrossRef]
Achiche, S. , and Ahmed, S. , 2009, “ Modeling Perception of 3d Forms Using Fuzzy Knowledge Bases,” ASME Paper No. DETC2009-86825.
Perez Mata, M. , Ahmed-Kristensen, S. , and Yanagisawa, H. , 2013, “ Perception of Aesthetics in Consumer Products,” 19th International Conference on Engineering Design ICED13, Seoul, South Korea, Aug. 19–22, pp. 527–536.
Lugo, J. E. , Schmiedeler, J. P. , Batill, S. M. , and Carlson, L. , 2016, “ Relationship Between Product Aesthetic Subject Preference and Quantified Gestalt Principles in Automobile Wheel Rims,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 138(5), p. 051101. [CrossRef]
Sylcott, B. , Orsborn, S. , and Cagan, J. , 2016, “ The Effect of Product Representation in Visual Conjoint Analysis,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 138(10), p. 101104. [CrossRef]
Sylcott, B. , Cagan, J. , and Tabibnia, G. , 2013, “ Understanding Consumer Tradeoffs Between Form and Function Through Metaconjoint and Cognitive Neuroscience Analyses,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(10), p. 101002. [CrossRef]
Ou, L. C. , Luo, M. R. , Woodcock, A. , and Wright, A. , 2004, “ A Study of Colour Emotion and Colour Preference—Part I: Colour Emotions for Single Colours,” Color Res. Appl., 29(3), pp. 232–240. [CrossRef]
Choungourian, A. , 1968, “ Color Preferences and Cultural Variation,” Percept. Mot. Skills, 26(3_Suppl), pp. 1203–1206. [CrossRef]
Choungourian, A. , 1969, “ Color Preferences: A Cross-Cultural and Cross-Sectional Study,” Percept. Mot. Skills, 28(3), pp. 801–802. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McManus, I. C. , Jones, A. L. , and Cottrell, J. , 1981, “ The Aesthetics of Colour.pdf.pdf,” Percept., 10(6), pp. 651–666. [CrossRef]
Grieve, K. W. , 1991, “ Traditional Beliefs and Colour Perception,” Percept. Mot. Skills, 72(3_suppl), pp. 1319–1323. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Blijlevens, J. , Creusen, M. E. H. , and Schoormans, J. P. L. , 2009, “ How Consumers Perceive Product Appearance: The Identification of Three Product Appearance Attributes,” Int. J. Des., 3(3), pp. 27–35.
Perez Mata, M. , Ahmed-Kristensen, S. , and Brockhoff, P. B. , 2014, “ Influence of Consumer's Background on Product Perception,” International Design Conference - Design 2014, Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 19–22, pp. 2125–2134.
Perez Mata, M. , Ahmed-Kristensen, S. , Brockhoff, P. B. , and Yanagisawa, H. , 2017, “ Investigating the Influence of Product Perception and Geometric Features,” Res. Eng. Des., 28(3), pp. 357–379.
Green, W. S. , 1999, “ Introduction: Design and Emotion,” First International Conference on Design and Emotion, Delft, the Netherlands, Nov. 3–5, pp. 7–8.
Desmet, P. M. A. , and Hekkert, P. , 2009, “ Special Issue Editorial: Design & Emotion What Inspired Interest User,” Int. J. Des., 3(2), pp. 1–6.
Lawson, B. , 1983, How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified, Architectural Press, Oxford, UK.
Perez Mata, M. , and Ahmed-Kristensen, S. , 2015, “ Principles for Designing for Perceptions,” 20th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED 15), Milan, Italy, July 27–30, pp. 239–248.
Wertheimer, M. , 1938, “ Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms,” A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt, Brace and Co, New York, pp. 71–88.
Fisher, M. , and Smith-Gratto, K. , 1999, “ Gestalt Theory: A Foundation for Instructional Screen Design,” J. Educ. Technol. Syst., 27(4), pp. 361–371. [CrossRef]
Goldstein, E. B. , 1999, Sensation and Perception, 5th ed., Brookes/Cole, Boston, MA.
Moore, B. , 2003, An Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing, Academic Press, London.
Moore, P. , and Fitz, C. , 1993, “ Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design,” J. Tech. Writ. Commun., 23(2), pp. 137–157. [CrossRef]
Chang, D. , and Nesbitt, K. , 2006, “ Developing Gestalt-Based Design Guidelines for Multi-Sensory Displays,” NICTA-HCSNet Multimodal User Interact. Work, 57, 9–16.
Lauer, D. A. , and Pentak, S. , 1979, Design Basics, Clark Baxter, New York.
Hekkert, P. , 2006, “ Design Aesthetics: Principles of Pleasure in Design,” Psychol. Sci., 48(2), pp. 157–172.
Pham, B. , 1999, “ Design for Aesthetics: Interactions of Design Variables and Aesthetic Properties,” SPIE IS&T/SPIE 11th Annual Symposium—Electronic Imaging, pp. 364–371.
Roussos, L. , and Dentsoras, A. , 2013, “ Formulation and Use of Criteria for the Evaluation of Aesthetic Attributes of Products in Engineering Design,” International Conference on Engineering Design ICED13, Seoul, South Korea, Aug. 19–22, pp. 1–10.
Achiche, S. , and Ahmed-Kristensen, S. , 2011, “ Genetic Fuzzy Modeling of User Perception of Three-Dimensional Shapes,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 25(1), pp. 93–107. [CrossRef]
Lugo, J. E. , Schmiedeler, J. P. , Batill, S. M. , and Carlson, L. , 2015, “ Quantification of Classical Gestalt Principles in Two-Dimensional Product Representations,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137(9), p. 094502. [CrossRef]
Valencia-Romero, A. , and Lugo, J. E. , 2016, “ Quantification of Symmetry, Parallelism, and Continuity as Continuous Design Variables for Three-Dimensional Product Representations,” ASME Paper No. DETC2016-59707.
Hsiao, S. W. , and Chou, J. R. , 2006, “ A Gestalt-like Perceptual Measure for Home Page Design Using a Fuzzy Entropy Approach,” Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud., 64(2), pp. 137–156. [CrossRef]
Van Bremen, E. J. J. , Knoop, W. G. , Horvath, I. , Vergeest, J. S. M. , and Pham, B. , 1998, “ Developing a Methodology for Design for Aesthetics Based on Analogy of Communication,” ASME Design Theory and Methodology Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, Sept. 13–16.
Desmet, P. M. A. , 2010, “ Three Levels of Product Emotion,” International Conference on Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research (KEER), Paris, France, Mar. 2–4, pp. 238–248.
Jordan, P. W. , 2000, Designing Pleasurable Products, Taylor & Francis, London.
Norman, D. A. , 2004, Emotional Design: Why We Love (or Hate) Everyday Things, Basic Books, New York.
Colwill, J. , Childs, T. H. C. , de Pennington, A. , Rait, J. , Robins, T. M. , Jones, K. , Workman, C. , and Warren, S. , 2003, “ Affective Design (Kansei Engineering) in Japan: A Report From a DTI International Technology Service Mission,” Faraday Packaging Partnership, White Rose University Consortium, England.
Lai, H.-H. H. , Chang, Y.-M. M. , and Chang, H.-C. C. , 2005, “ A Robust Design Approach for Enhancing the Feeling Quality of a Product: A Car Profile Case Study,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 35(5), pp. 445–460. [CrossRef]
Yanagisawa, H. , and Fukuda, S. , 2005, “ Interactive Reduct Evolutional Computation for Aesthetic Design,” J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 5(1), pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Orsborn, S. , Cagan, J. , and Boatwright, P. , 2009, “ Quantifying Aesthetic Form Preference in a Utility Function,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 131(6), p. 061001. [CrossRef]
Hekkert, P. , 2014, “ Aesthetic Responses to Design: A Battle of Impulses,” The Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Aesthetics and the Arts, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 277–299.
Khalaj, J. , and Pedgley, O. , 2014, “ Comparison of Semantic Intent and Realization in Product Design: A Study on High-End Furniture Impressions,” Int. J. Des., 8(3), pp. 79–96.
Krishnamurti, R. , and Stouffs, R. , 1993, “ Spatial Grammars: Motivation, Comparison, and New Results,” CAAD Futures (1943), pp. 57–74.
Knight, T. W. , 1993, “ Color Grammars: The Representation of Form and Color in Designs,” Leonardo, 26(2), pp. 117–124. [CrossRef]
Stiny, G. , 1977, “ Ice-Ray: A Note on the Generation of Chinese Lattice Designs,” Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des, 4(1), pp. 89–98. [CrossRef]
Stiny, G. , and Mitchell, W. , 1978, “ The Palladian Grammar,” Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des., 5(2), pp. 5–18. [CrossRef]
Koning, H. , and Eizenberg, J. , 1981, “ The Language of the Prairie: Frank Lloyd Wright's Prairie Houses,” Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des., 8(3), pp. 295–323. [CrossRef]
McCormack, J. P. , Cagan, J. , and Vogel, C. M. , 2004, “ Speaking the Buick Language: Capturing, Understanding, and Exploring Brand Identity With Shape Grammars,” Des. Stud., 25(1), pp. 1–29. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, M. , and Cagan, J. , 1998, “ A Blend of Different Tastes: The Language of Coffee Makers,” Environ. Plan. B Plan. Des., 25(2), pp. 205–226. [CrossRef]
Chau, H. H. , Chen, X. , McKay, A. , and Pennington, A. , 2004, “ Evaluation of a 3D Shape Grammar Implementation,” Design Computing and Cognition '04, ., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 357–376.
Orsborn, S. , Cagan, J. , Pawlicki, R. , and Smith, R. , 2006, “ Pushing the Limits of Vehicle Design: Utilizing a Parametric Shape Grammar to Explore Cross-Over Vehicle Concepts,” ASME Paper No. DETC2006-99152.
Orsborn, S. , and Cagan, J. , 2009, “ Multiagent Shape Grammar Implementation: Automatically Generating Form Concepts According to a Preference Function,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 131(12), p. 121007. [CrossRef]
Chen, X. , McKay, A. , Pennington, A. , and Chau, H. H. , 2009, “ Translating Brand Essence Into Product Form: A Case Study in Shape Computation,” J. Des. Res., 8(1), pp. 42–65.
Perez Mata, M. , Ahmed-Kristensen, S. , and Shea, K. , 2015, “ Spatial Grammar for Design Synthesis Targeting Perceptions: Case Study on Beauty),” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46449.
Goldberg, D. , 1989, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, London.
Ang, M. C. , Chau, H. H. , Mckay, A. , and Pennington, A. D. E. , 2006, “ Combining Evolutionary Algorithms and Shape Grammars to Generate Branded Product Design,” Design Computing and Cognition '06, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Rosenman, M. A. , 1997, “ An Exploration Into Evolutionary Models for Non-Routine Design,” Artif. Intell. Eng., 11(3), pp. 287–293. [CrossRef]
Bentley, P. J. , Gordon, T. G. W. , Kim, J. , and Kumar, S. , 2001, “ New Trends in Evolutionary Computation,” Congress on Evolutionary Computation, Seoul, South Korea, May 27–30, pp. 162–169.
Renner, G. , and Ekárt, A. , 2003, “ Genetic Algorithms in Computer Aided Design,” Comput. Des., 35(8), pp. 709–726.
Cluzel, F. , Yannou, B. , and Dihlmann, M. , 2012, “ Using Evolutionary Design to Interactively Sketch Car Silhouettes and Stimulate Designer's Creativity,” Eng. Appl. Artif. Intell., 25(7), pp. 1413–1424. [CrossRef]
Krish, S. , 2011, “ A Practical Generative Design Method,” CAD Comput. Aided Des., 43(1), pp. 88–100. [CrossRef]
Woodbury, R. , 2010, Elements of Parametric Design, Routledge, Abingdon, UK.
Solano, L. , and Brunet, P. , 2003, “ Constructive Constraint-Based Model for Parametric CAD Systems,” Comput. Des., 26(8), pp. 614–621.
Hoisl, F. , 2012, Visual, Interactive 3D Spatial Grammars in CAD for Computational Design Synthesis, Technical University München, Munich, Germany.
Hoisl, F. , and Shea, K. , 2011, “ An Interactive, Visual Approach to Developing and Applying Parametric Three-Dimensional Spatial Grammars,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 25(4), pp. 333–356. [CrossRef]
Achiche, S. , and Ahmed, S. , 2008, “ Mapping Shape Geometry and Emotions Using Fuzzy Logic,” ASME Paper No. DETC2008-49290.
Osgood, C. E. , Suci, G. J. , and Tannenbaum, P. H. , 1957, The Measurement of Meaning, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Cronbach, L. J. , 1951, “ Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests,” Psychometrika, 16(3), pp. 297–334. [CrossRef]
Nunnally, J. C. , and Bernstein, I. H. , 1994, Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Birkhoff, G. D. , 1933, Aesthetic Measure, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, p. 226.
Hsiao, S.-W. , Chiu, F.-Y. , and Chen, C. S. , 2008, “ Applying Aesthetics Measurement to Product Design,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., 38(11–12), pp. 910–920. [CrossRef]
Mardia, K. V. , 1970, “ Measures of Multivariate Skewness and Kurtosis With Applications,” Biometrika, 57(3), pp. 519–530. [CrossRef]
StataCorp, 2015, “ Stata 14 Base Reference Manual,” pp. 1–2556.
Shapiro, A. S. S. , and Wilk, M. B. , 1965, “ An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Samples),” Biometrika, 52(3/4), pp. 591–611. [CrossRef]
Wilcoxon, F. , 1945, “ Individual Comparisons of Grouped Data by Ranking Methods,” J. Econ. Entomol., 1(6), pp. 80–83.
McCrum-Gardner, E. , 2008, “ Which Is the Correct Statistical Test to Use?,” Br. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg., 46(1), pp. 38–41. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Genometri Ltd., 2013, “ Genoform Plugin v3.0,” Genometri Ltd., Singapore.
Goldman, A. , 1995, Aesthetic Value, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow diagram describing the research process to implement perception rules

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Beautiful, elegant and exciting looking vases (Perez Mata et al. [11])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Common aesthetic design rules (left) that influence each of the three perceptions under study (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Four types of grammar rules developed for the vase grammar [62]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Generic parametric model for the revolution of the profile

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Images of the 12 vases designs. The dotted line indicates those vases that were control vases. vases 1–6 are generated with the set grammar. vases 7–12 are generated with a parametric model.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Vase designs from the set grammar and the parametric model implementation. The dashed line indicates the starting shape of the parametric model.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In