Research Papers: Design of Direct Contact Systems

A Study on the Design and Performance of Epicycloid Bevels of Pure-Rolling Contact

[+] Author and Article Information
Rulong Tan

The State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical Transmission,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, China;
College of Electrical Engineering,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, China

Bingkui Chen, Dong Liang

The State Key Laboratory of
Mechanical Transmission,
Chongqing University,
Chongqing 400044, China

Dongyun Xiang

Changan Automobile (Group) Co. Ltd,
Chongqing 401120, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Power Transmission and Gearing Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received October 7, 2017; final manuscript received December 8, 2017; published online February 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Hai Xu.

J. Mech. Des 140(4), 043301 (Feb 27, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MD-17-1674; doi: 10.1115/1.4039008 History: Received October 07, 2017; Revised December 08, 2017

To avoid the negative influence of sliding contact, this paper tries to investigate the spiral bevels of pure-rolling contact that can be manufactured by existing manufacture technology. In this process, spatial conjugate curve meshing theory and conjugate surface theory are both introduced to investigate the geometric principles and face hobbing process of the pure-rolling contact epicycloid bevel (PCEB for short in this paper). The tooth surface models of PCEBs by face hobbing process are obtained. Next, a sample is represented to show an application of this model. Then, finite element analysis (FEA) is applied to investigate the contact mechanics characteristics of these gears. Finally, the performance experiment of a prototype is completed to evaluate the deviations between theoretical expectations and practical results. From the FEA and experimental results, it is concluded that the PCEBs can mesh correctly and achieve a higher transmission efficiency.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Topics: Gears , Design
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Michlin, Y. , and Myunster, V. , 2002, “ Determination of Power Losses in Gear Transmissions With Rolling and Sliding Friction Incorporated,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 37(2), pp. 167–174. [CrossRef]
Fernandes, P. J. L. , and McDuling, C. , 1997, “ Surface Contact Fatigue Failures in Gears,” Eng. Failure Anal., 4(2), pp. 99–107. [CrossRef]
Ristivojević, M. , Lazović, T. , and Vencl, A. , 2013, “ Studying the Load Carrying Capacity of Spur Gear Tooth Flanks,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 59, pp. 125–137. [CrossRef]
Wagner, M. J. , Ng, W. F. , and Dhande, S. G. , 1992, “ Profile Synthesis and Kinematic Analysis of Pure Rolling Contact Gears,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 114(2), pp. 326–333. [CrossRef]
Chen, C.-H. , 1995, “ A Formula for Determining Limit Noninterference Curvature in Pure Rolling Conjugation Gears by Using Geometro-Kinematical Concepts,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 117(1), pp. 180–184. [CrossRef]
Song, Y. , Liao, Q. , Wei, S. , Guo, L. , Song, H. , and Zhou, L. , 2014, “ Modelling, Simulation and Experiment of a Novel Pure Rolling Cycloid Reducer With Involute Teeth,” Int. J. Modell., Identif. Control, 21(2), pp. 184–192. [CrossRef]
Tan, R. , Chen, B. , and Peng, C. , 2015, “ General Mathematical Model of Spiral Bevel Gears of Continuous Pure-Rolling Contact,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 229(15), pp. 2810–2826. [CrossRef]
Wildhaber, E. , 1956, “ Surface Curvature,” Prod. Eng., 27(5), pp. 184–191.
Baxter, M. L. , 1973, “ Second-Order Surface Generation,” Ind. Math., 23(Pt 2), pp. 85–106.
Tsai, Y. C. , and Chin, P. C. , 1987, “ Surface Geometry of Straight and Spiral Bevel Gears,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 109(4), pp. 443–449.
Litvin, F. L. , and Zhang, Y. , 1991, “Local Synthesis and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face-Milled Spiral Bevel Gears,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA Contractor Report No. 4342.
Fan, Q. , 2005, “ Computerized Modeling and Simulation of Spiral Bevel and Hypoid Gears Manufactured by Gleason Face Hobbing Process,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 128(6), pp. 1315–1327. [CrossRef]
Ding, H. , Zhou, Y. , Tang, J. , Zhong, J. , Zhou, Z. , and Wan, G. , 2017, “ A Novel Operation Approach to Determine Initial Contact Point for Tooth Contact Analysis With Errors of Spiral Bevel and Hypoid Gears,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 109, pp. 155–170. [CrossRef]
Gonzalez-Perez, I. , and Fuentes-Aznar, A. , 2017, “ Analytical Determination of Basic Machine-Tool Settings for Generation of Spiral Bevel Gears and Compensation of Errors of Alignment in the Cyclo-Palloid System,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 120, pp. 91–104. [CrossRef]
Simon, V. , 2013, “ Design of Face-Hobbed Spiral Bevel Gears With Reduced Maximum Tooth Contact Pressure and Transmission Errors,” Chin. J. Aeronaut., 26(3), pp. 777–790. [CrossRef]
Simon, V. V. , 2014, “ Manufacture of Optimized Face-Hobbed Spiral Bevel Gears on Computer Numerical Control Hypoid Generator,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Nishino, T. , 2009, “ Computerized Modeling and Loaded Tooth Contact Analysis of Hypoid Gears Manufactured by Face Hobbing Process,” J. Adv. Mech. Des., Syst., Manuf., 3(3), pp. 224–235. [CrossRef]
Kolivand, M. , Li, S. , and Kahraman, A. , 2010, “ Prediction of Mechanical Gear Mesh Efficiency of Hypoid Gear Pairs,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 45(11), pp. 1568–1582. [CrossRef]
Mo, S. , and Zhang, Y. , 2015, “ Spiral Bevel Gear True Tooth Surface Precise Modeling and Experiments Studies Based on Machining Adjustment Parameters,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 229(14), pp. 2524–2533. [CrossRef]
Tan, R. , Chen, B. , Peng, C. , and Li, X. , 2015, “ Study on Spatial Curve Meshing and Its Application for Logarithmic Spiral Bevel Gears,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 86, pp. 172–190. [CrossRef]
Litvin, F. L. , and Fuentes, A. , 2004, Gear Geometry and Applied Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [CrossRef]
Litvin, F. L. , Fuentes, A. , Gonzalez-Perez, I. , Carnevali, L. , and Sep, T. M. , 2002, “ New Version of Novikov–Wildhaber Helical Gears: Computerized Design, Simulation of Meshing and Stress Analysis,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 191(49–50), pp. 5707–5740. [CrossRef]
Popov, V. L. , 2010, Contact Mechanics and Friction: Physical Principles and Applications, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [CrossRef]
Olver, A. V. , 2002, “ Gear Lubrication—A Review,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part J, 216(5), pp. 255–267. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Location of the point, P

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Schematic of the blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Diagram of the spatial curves Γg, Γ1, and Γ2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Applied coordinate systems in face hobbing process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic of coordinate systems and components in face hobbing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Coordinate systems in the meshing process of the pinion and gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of continuous indexing motion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Prototype gearbox

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Principle scheme of the test system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Testing rig: 1—driving motor, 2—torque and rotational speed transducer 1, 3—prototype gearbox, 4—torque and rotational speed transducer 2, 5—gear reducer, and 6—loading motor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Maximum contact stresses of the middle teeth of the pinion and gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

The deviation distance between theoretical and real locations with maximum contact pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Theoretical and real contact paths on the pinion tooth

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Slip ratios at real locations with maximum contact pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Blades with single-arc profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Blades with double-arc profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Relationships of generating tooth surfaces and manufactured tooth surfaces

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Assemble model of the manufactured pinion and gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Assemble model of the generating crown gear and manufactured pinion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Schematic of finite element model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Stress distribution of the pinion in the mesh cycle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Transmission efficiency of the prototype gearbox

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Transmission efficiency of the original gearbox

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Contact areas under light loads

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Oil temperature variations of the prototype gearbox

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Oil temperature variations of the original gearbox




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In