0
Research Papers: Design Automation

Toward a Universal Social Impact Metric for Engineered Products That Alleviate Poverty

[+] Author and Article Information
Phillip D. Stevenson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Brigham Young University,
Provo, UT 84602
e-mail: phillip.stevenson@byu.edu

Christopher A. Mattson

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Brigham Young University,
Provo, UT 84602
e-mail: mattson@byu.edu

Kenneth M. Bryden

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Iowa State University,
Ames, IA 50011
e-mail: kmbryden@iastate.edu

Nordica A. MacCarty

Department of Mechanical, Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97331
e-mail: nordica.maccarty@oregonstate.edu

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received April 28, 2017; final manuscript received December 15, 2017; published online February 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Carolyn Seepersad.

J. Mech. Des 140(4), 041404 (Feb 27, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MD-17-1300; doi: 10.1115/1.4038925 History: Received April 28, 2017; Revised December 15, 2017

One of the purposes of creating products for developing countries is to improve the consumer's quality of life. Currently, there is no standard method for measuring the social impact of these types of products. As a result, engineers have used their own metrics, if at all. Some of the common metrics used include products sold and revenue, which measure the financial success of a product without recognizing the social successes or failures it might have. In this paper, we introduce a potential universal metric, the product impact metric (PIM), which quantifies the impact a product has on impoverished individuals—especially those living in developing countries. It measures social impact broadly in five dimensions: health, education, standard of living, employment quality, and security. By measuring impact multidimensionally, it captures impacts both anticipated and unanticipated, thereby providing a broader assessment of the product's total impact than with other more specific metrics. The PIM is calculated based on 18 simple field measurements of the consumer. It is inspired by the UN's Multidimensional Poverty Index (UNMPI) created by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The UNMPI measures how level of poverty within a nation changes year after year, and the PIM measures how an individual's poverty level changes after being affected by an engineered product. The PIM can be used to measure social impact (using specific data from products introduced into the market) or predict social impact (using personas that represent real individuals).

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

The World Bank, 2016, World Development Indicators 2016, World Bank Publications, Washington, DC.
George, C. , 2012, “ Is the Community Partner Satisfied?,” Service-Learning in the Computer and Information Sciences: Practical Applications in Engineering Education, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 517–530.
Fontes, J., Bolhuis, A., Bogaers, K., Saling, P., van Gelder, R., Traverso, M., Das Gupta, J., Morris, D., Bosch, H., and Woodyard, D., 2016, Handbook for Product Social Impact Assessment, PRé Sustainability, Le Amersfoort, The Netherlands.
Becker, H. A. , 2001, “ Social Impact Assessment,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., 128(2), pp. 311–321. [CrossRef]
Mair, J. , and Noboa, E. , 2006, “ Social Entrepreneurship: How Intentions to Create a Social Venture are Formed,” Social Entrepreneurship, Palgrave Macmillan, London, pp. 121–135. [CrossRef]
Hutchins, M. J. , Gierke, J. S. , and Sutherland, J. W. , 2009, “ Decision Making for Social Sustainability: A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach,” IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS'09), Tempe, AZ, May 18–20, pp. 1–5.
Woodcraft, S. , Hackett, T. , and Caistor-Arendar, L. , 2011, Design for Social Sustainability: A Framework for Creating Thriving New Communities, Future Communities, London.
Ma, J. , and Kremer, G. E. O. , 2015, “A Modular Product Design Method to Improve Product Social Sustainability Performance,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46623.
Lee, E. J. , and Schwab, K. J. , 2005, “ Deficiencies in Drinking Water Distribution Systems in Developing Countries,” J. Water Health, 3(2), pp. 109–127. [PubMed]
Bruce, N. , Perez-Padilla, R. , and Albalak, R. , 2000, “ Indoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries: A Major Environmental and Public Health Challenge,” Bull. World Health Org., 78(9), pp. 1078–1092.
Sagar, A. D. , 2005, “ Alleviating Energy Poverty for the World's Poor,” Energy Policy, 33(11), pp. 1367–1372. [CrossRef]
Grantham-McGregor, S. , Cheung, Y. B. , Cueto, S. , Glewwe, P. , Richter, L. , and Strupp, B. , and International Child Development Steering Group, 2007, “ Developmental Potential in the First 5 Years for Children in Developing Countries,” Lancet, 369(9555), pp. 60–70. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
UNICEF, 2015, “The State of the World's Children 2015: Reimagine the Future: Innovation for Every Child,” The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, New York, pp. 29–115.
Rogers, E. M. , 2010, Diffusion of Innovations, Simon and Schuster, Stuttgart, Germany.
Wood, A. E. , and Mattson, C. A. , 2016, “ Design for the Developing World: Common Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 138(3), p. 031101. [CrossRef]
George, C. , and Shams, A. , 2007, “ The Challenge of Including Customer Satisfaction Into the Assessment Criteria of Overseas Service-Learning Projects,” Int. J. Service Learn. Eng., 2(2), pp. 64–75.
Sovacool, B. K. , and Dworkin, M. H. , 2015, “ Energy Justice: Conceptual Insights and Practical Applications,” Appl. Energy, 142, pp. 435–444. [CrossRef]
Thacker, K. S. , Barger, M. , and Mattson, C. A. , 2014, “ A Global Review of End User Needs: Establishing the Need for Adaptable Cookstoves,” IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), San Jose, CA, Oct. 10–13, pp. 649–658.
MacCarty, N. A. , and Bryden, K. M. , 2016, “ An Integrated Systems Model for Energy Services in Rural Developing Communities,” Energy, 113, pp. 536–557. [CrossRef]
Bovea, M. D. , and Vidal, R. , 2004, “ Increasing Product Value by Integrating Environmental Impact, Costs and Customer Valuation,” Resour. Conserv. Recycl., 41(2), pp. 133–145. [CrossRef]
Mulugetta, Y. , 2005, Energy for Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Sustainable Decision Making, Intermediate Technology, Rugby, UK. [CrossRef]
Benoît, C. , 2010, Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products, UNEP/Earthprint, Nairobi, Kenya.
UNDP, 2010, “Human Development Report 2010,” United Nations Development Programme, New York, Report.
Alkire, S. , 2007, “ The Missing Dimensions of Poverty Data: Introduction to the Special Issue,” Oxford Dev. Stud., 35(4), pp. 347–359. [CrossRef]
Ana Lugo, M. , 2007, “ Employment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators,” Oxford Dev. Stud., 35(4), pp. 361–378. [CrossRef]
Diprose, R. , 2007, “ Physical Safety and Security: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Violence,” Oxford Dev. Stud., 35(4), pp. 431–458. [CrossRef]
Ibrahim, S. , and Alkire, S. , 2007, “ Agency and Empowerment: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators,” Oxford Dev. Stud., 35(4), pp. 379–403. [CrossRef]
Samman, E. , 2007, “ Psychological and Subjective Well-Being: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators,” Oxford Dev. Stud., 35(4), pp. 459–486. [CrossRef]
Zavaleta Reyles, D. , 2007, “ The Ability to Go About Without Shame: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators of Shame and Humiliation,” Oxford Dev. Stud., 35(4), pp. 405–430. [CrossRef]
Peña-García, A. , Hurtado, A. , and Aguilar-Luzón, M. C. , 2015, “ Impact of Public Lighting on Pedestrians' Perception of Safety and Well-Being,” Saf. Sci., 78, pp. 142–148. [CrossRef]
Painter, K. , 1996, “ The Influence of Street Lighting Improvements on Crime, Fear and Pedestrian Street Use, After Dark,” Landscape Urban Plann., 35(2), pp. 193–201. [CrossRef]
Alkire, S. , and Santos, M. E. , 2010, “Acute Multidimensional Poverty: A New Index for Developing Countries,” Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, Oxford, UK, Working Paper No. 38.
Billig, P. , Bendahmane, D. , and Swindale, A. , 1999, “Water and Sanitation Indicators Measurement Guide,” Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.
CDC, 2000, “ CDC Growth Charts for the United States: Methods and Development,” Vital Health Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD, Report.
Levitt, S. D. , 2004, “ Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors That Explain the Decline and Six That Do Not,” J. Econ. Perspect., 18(1), pp. 163–190. [CrossRef]
Edgar, J. M. , McInerney, W. D. , and Mele, J. A. , 2013, The Use of Locks in Physical Crime Prevention: National Crime Prevention Institute, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Welsh, B. C. , and Hoshi, A. , 2002, “ Communities and Crime Prevention,” Evidence-Based Crime Prevention, Vol. 165, Routledge, London. [CrossRef]
Barslund, M. , Rand, J. , Tarp, F. , and Chiconela, J. , 2007, “ Understanding Victimization: The Case of Mozambique,” World Dev., 35(7), pp. 1237–1258. [CrossRef]
Andresen, M. A. , 2011, “ Estimating the Probability of Local Crime Clusters: The Impact of Immediate Spatial Neighbors,” J. Crim. Justice, 39(5), pp. 394–404. [CrossRef]
Sen, A. , 1981, Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Alkire, S. , and Santos, M. E. , 2013, “ Measuring Acute Poverty in the Developing World: Robustness and Scope of the Multidimensional Poverty Index,” Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative, Oxford, UK, Working Paper No. 59.
Mattson, C. A. , Wood, A. E. , and Renouard, J. , 2017, “ Village Drill: A Case Study in Engineering for Global Development, With Five Years of Data Post Market-Introduction,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 139(6), p. 065001. [CrossRef]
Khandker, S. R. , Koolwal, G. B. , and Samad, H. A. , 2009, Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices, World Bank Publications, Washington, DC. [CrossRef]
Gertler, P. J. , Martinez, S. , Premand, P. , Rawlings, L. B. , and Vermeersch, C. M. J. , 2011, Impact Evaluation in Practice, World Bank Publications, Washington, DC.
Hanington, B. , and Martin, B. , 2012, Universal Methods of Design: 100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions, Rockport Publishers, Beverly, MA.
Amin, M. , Kuntchev, V. , and Schmidt, M. , 2015, “Gender Inequality and Growth: The Case of Rich Vs. Poor Countries,” World Bank, Washington, DC, Policy Research Working Paper No. 7172.
Mattson, C. A. , and Wood, A. E. , 2014, “ Nine Principles for Design for the Developing World as Derived From the Engineering Literature,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(12), p. 121403. [CrossRef]
IBGE, 2016, “Cidades,” Itacoatiara, Amazonas, Brazil.
Muir, J. A. , 2012, “Indicators of Fertility Change in a Developing Nation: Examining the Impact of Motorcycles as a Distance Demolishing Technology on Fertility Change in Rural Indonesia,” M.S. thesis, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
de Vasconcellos, E. A. , 2013, “ Road Safety Impacts of the Motorcycle in Brazil,” Int. J. Inj. Control Saf. Promot., 20(2), pp. 144–151. [CrossRef]
Jones, T. , and de Azevedo, L. N. , 2013, “ Economic, Social and Cultural Transformation and the Role of the Bicycle in Brazil,” J. Transp. Geogr., 30, pp. 208–219. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Adia buys a bore hole from a team of drillers using the village drill and its impact on her is shown here

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Assessment of the PIM score of motorcycles on motorcycle taxi drivers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Itacoatiara and its immediate surroundings

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Product impact metric score predictions of motorcycles on unemployed people who do not own a motorcycle

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In