Planetary gear trains (PGTs) are widely used in machinery to transmit angular velocity ratios or torque ratios. The graph theory has been proved to be an effective tool to synthesize and analyze PGTs. This paper aims to propose a new graph model, which has some merits relative to the existing ones, to represent the structure of PGTs. First, the rotation graph and canonical rotation graph of PGTs are defined. Then, by considering the edge levels in the rotation graph, the displacement graph and canonical displacement graph are defined. Each displacement graph corresponds to a PGT having the specified functional characteristics. The synthesis of five-link one degree-of-freedom (1DOF) PGTs is used as an example to interpret and demonstrate the applicability of the present graph representation in the synthesis process. The present graph representation can completely avoid the generation of pseudo-isomorphic graphs and can be used in the computer-aided synthesis and analysis of PGTs.