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Special Issue paper

A Survey of Modeling of Lattice Structures Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Guoying Dong

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
817 Rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Room G53,
Montréal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada
e-mail: guoying.dong@mail.mcgill.ca

Yunlong Tang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
817 Rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Room G53,
Montréal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada
e-mail: tang.yunlong@mail.mcgill.ca

Yaoyao Fiona Zhao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
McGill University,
817 Rue Sherbrooke Ouest, Room 148,
Montréal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada
e-mail: yaoyao.zhao@mcgill.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design for Manufacturing Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received February 13, 2017; final manuscript received June 27, 2017; published online August 30, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Christopher Williams.

J. Mech. Des 139(10), 100906 (Aug 30, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: MD-17-1129; doi: 10.1115/1.4037305 History: Received February 13, 2017; Revised June 27, 2017

The lattice structure is a type of cellular material with trusslike frames which can be optimized for specific loading conditions. The fabrication of its intricate architecture is restricted by traditional manufacturing technologies. However, additive manufacturing (AM) enables the fabrication of complex structures by aggregation of materials in a layer-by-layer fashion, which has unlocked the potential of lattice structures. In the last decade, lattice structures have received considerable research attention focusing on the design, simulation, and fabrication for AM techniques. And different modeling approaches have been proposed to predict the mechanical performance of lattice structures. This review introduces the aspects of modeling of lattice structures and the correlation between them, summarizes the existing modeling approaches for simulation, and discusses the strength and weakness in different simulation methods. This review also summarizes the characteristics of AM in manufacturing cellular materials and discusses their influence on the modeling of lattice structures.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Examples of different types of lattice structures based on the degree of order: (a) disordered lattice structures, (b) periodic lattice structures, and (c) conformal lattice structures

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Fig. 2

The concept of modeling of lattice structures for AM process

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Fig. 3

(a) FE model with beam elements and (b) homogenized FE model with solid elements

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Fig. 4

(a) The conceptual configuration semijoint frame element and (b) the as-fabricated voxel modeling procedure [75]

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Fig. 5

3D tetrahedral elements compared with beam elements: (a) 3D solid mesh using 19,830 elements and 2 h 44 min computational time, (b) one-dimensional beam mesh using 160 elements and 51 s computational time, and (c) one-dimensional beam mesh using 96 elements and 12 s computational time (Reprinted from Imbalzano, G., Tran, J. P., Ngo, T., and Lee, P., 2015, “A Numerical Study of Auxetic Composite Panels under Blast Loadings,” Composite Structures. 135 pp. 339–352 with permission from Elsevier.)

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Fig. 6

Hybrid FE model to analysis the lattice structure connected to solid materials

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Fig. 7

Contour plot of von Mises stress distribution (MPa) for two scaffolds with exactly the same porosity that were compressed in the y direction: (a) smooth surface and (b) irregular surface

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Fig. 8

Beam elements with varied diameters to model the irregular strut: (a) implementation in FE model and (b) actual irregularity

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Fig. 9

Young's modulus and tensile strength as a function of polar angle and strut diameter

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