The force and/or motion transmissibility and the analyticity of inverse kinematics for a thumb mechanism depend on thumb configuration. This paper presents a general framework for the thumb configuration and performance evaluation in the design of dexterous robotic hand. The thumb configuration is described by the functional analysis of human thumb, and the thumb of robotic hand is generalized into 15 configurations. A performance evaluation method is proposed based on kinetostatic and dynamic dexterity as well as workspace. The kinetostatic dexterity is based on a Jacobian matrix condition number (JMCN). A dynamic dexterity measure is presented via acceleration analysis, which keeps a clear geometric meaning. The proposed method is applied to evaluate the performance of three examples, which cover thumb configurations of most existing dexterous hands. Performance evaluation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Using these results and the proposed performance evaluation method, meaningful design principles are presented to guide the design of the thumb configuration.