0
Research Papers: Design Automation

A Comparison of Network-Based Metrics of Behavioral Degradation in Complex Engineered Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Brandon M. Haley

Complex Engineered Systems
Design Laboratory,
School of Mechanical, Industrial, and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97331
e-mail: haleybr@onid.orst.edu

Andy Dong

Faculty of Engineering and
Information Technologies,
University of Sydney,
Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
e-mail: andy.dong@sydney.edu.au

Irem Y. Tumer

Complex Engineered Systems
Design Laboratory,
School of Mechanical, Industrial, and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
Corvallis, OR 97331
e-mail: irem.tumer@oregonstate.edu

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received June 2, 2016; final manuscript received July 26, 2016; published online September 19, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Xiaoping Du.

J. Mech. Des 138(12), 121405 (Sep 19, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: MD-16-1414; doi: 10.1115/1.4034402 History: Received June 02, 2016; Revised July 26, 2016

It has been assumed, but not yet tested, that the topological disintegration of networks is relatable to degradations in complex engineered system behavior and that extant network metrics are capable of capturing these degradations. This paper tests three commonly used network metrics used to quantify the topological robustness of networks for their ability to characterize the degree of failure in engineered systems: average shortest path length, network diameter, and a robustness coefficient. A behavioral network of a complex engineered system is subjected to “attack” to simulate potential failures to the system. Average shortest path length and the robustness coefficient showed topological disintegration patterns which differed between nominal and failed cases, regardless of failure implementation location. The network diameter metric is not sufficiently dependent on local cluster topology to show changes in topology with edge removal failure strategies. The results show that topological metrics from the field of complex networks are applicable to complex engineered systems when they account for both local and global topological changes.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Albert, R. , Jeong, H. , and Barabási, A. , 2000, “ Error and Attack Tolerance of Complex Networks,” Nature, 406(6794), pp. 378–382. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Albert, R. , and Barabási, A.-L. , 2002, “ Statistical Mechanics of Complex Networks,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 74(1), pp. 47–97. [CrossRef]
Mitchell, M. , 2006, “ Complex Systems: Network Thinking,” Artif. Intell., 170(18), pp. 1194–1212. [CrossRef]
Wuellner, D. R. , Roy, S. , and D'Souza, R. M. , 2010, “ Resilience and Rewiring of the Passenger Airline Networks in the United States,” Phys. Rev. E, 82(5), p. 056101. [CrossRef]
Kinney, R. , Crucitti, P. , Albert, R. , and Latora, V. , 2005, “ Modeling Cascading Failures in the North American Power Grid,” Eur. Phys. J. B, 46(1), pp. 101–107. [CrossRef]
Sarkar, S. , Dong, A. , Henderson, J. A. , and Robinson, P. A. , 2014, “ Spectral Characterization of Hierarchical Modularity in Product Architectures,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(1), p. 011006. [CrossRef]
Sosa, M. E. , Mihm, J. , and Browning, T. , 2011, “ Degree Distribution and Quality in Complex Engineered Systems,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(10), p. 101008. [CrossRef]
Mehrpouyan, H. , Haley, B. , Dong, A. , Tumer, I. Y. , and Hoyle, C. , 2013, “ Resilient Design of Complex Engineered Systems,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-13248.
Mehrpouyan, H. , Haley, B. , Tumer, I. , Hoyle, C. , and Dong, A. , 2015, “ Resiliency Analysis for Complex System Design,” AIEDAM J., 29(1), pp. 93–108. [CrossRef]
Haley, B. , Dong, A. , and Tumer, I. , 2014, “ Creating Faultable Network Models of Complex Engineered Systems,” ASME Paper No. DETC2014-34407.
Kim, C. , and Choi, K. K. , 2008, “ Reliability-Based Design Optimization Using Response Surface Method With Prediction Interval Estimation,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(12), p. 121401. [CrossRef]
Arvidsson, M. , and Gremyr, I. , 2008, “ Principles of Robust Design Methodology,” Quality Reliab. Eng. Int., 24(1), pp. 23–35. [CrossRef]
Park, G. , Lee, T. , Lee, D. , and Hwang, K. , 2006, “ Robust Design: An Overview,” AIAA J., 44(1), pp. 181–191. [CrossRef]
Tiller, M. , 2001, Introduction to Physical Modeling With Modelica, Vol. 615, Springer Science+Business Media, New York.
Albert, R. , Jeong, H. , and Barabási, A.-L. , 2007, “ Error and Attack Tolerance of Complex Networks,” Nature, 6794(406), pp. 378–382.
Jamakovic, A. , and Uhlig, S. , 2007, “ On the Relationship Between the Algebraic Connectivity and Graph's Robustness to Node and Link Failures,” 3rd EuroNGI Conference on Next Generation Internet Networks, May 21–23, IEEE, New York, pp. 96–102.
Jamakovic, A. , Kooij, R. E. , Van Mieghem, P. , and van Dam, E. R. , 2006, “ Robustness of Networks Against Viruses: The Role of the Spectral Radius,” Symposium on Communications and Vehicular Technology, Nov. 23, pp. 35–38.
Chiriac, N. , Hölttä-Otto, K. , Lysy, D. , and Suh, E. S. , 2011, “ Level of Modularity and Different Levels of System Granularity,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(10), p. 101007. [CrossRef]
Sarkar, S. , and Dong, A. , 2011, “ Community Detection in Graphs Using Singular Value Decomposition,” Phys. Rev. E, 83(4), p. 046114. [CrossRef]
Eppinger, S. D. , and Browning, T. R. , 2012, Design Structure Matrix Methods and Applications, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Stone, R. , Tumer, I. , and Wie, M. V. , 2005, “ The Function-Failure Design Method,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 127(3), pp. 397–407. [CrossRef]
Tu, J. , Choi, K. K. , and Park, Y. H. , 1999, “ A New Study on Reliability-Based Design Optimization,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 121(4), pp. 557–564. [CrossRef]
Automotive Industry Action Group, 2008, “ Potential Failure Mode & Effects Analysis,” 4th ed., Automotive Industry Action Group, Southfield, MI.
Kurtoglu, T. , and Tumer, I. Y. , 2008, “ A Graph-Based Fault Identification and Propagation Framework for Functional Design of Complex Systems,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(5), p. 051401. [CrossRef]
Grantham-Lough, K. , Stone, R. , and Tumer, I. , 2008, “ Failure Prevention Through Effective Cataloguing and Utilization of Failure Events,” J. Failure Anal. Prev., 8(5), pp. 469–481. [CrossRef]
Grantham-Lough, K. , Stone, R. , and Tumer, I. , 2008, “ Implementation Procedures for the Risk in Early Design (RED) Method,” J. Ind. Syst. Eng., 2(2), pp. 126–143. http://jise.ir/article_3973.html
Jensen, D. , 2012, “ Enabling Safety-Informed Design Decision Making Through Simulation, Reasoning and Analysis,” Ph.D. thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR http://hdl.handle.net/1957/29217.
Stone, R. , Tumer, I. , and Stock, M. , 2006, “ Linking Product Functionality to Historical Failures to Improve Failure Analysis in Design,” Res. Eng. Des., 16(2), pp. 96–108.
Stone, R. B. , Tumer, I. Y. , and VanWie, M. , 2005, “ The Function-Failure Design Method,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 127(3), pp. 397–407. [CrossRef]
Jensen, D. , Bello, O. , Hoyle, C. , and Tumer, I. , 2014, “ Reasoning About Emergent System Failure Behavior Using Large Sets of Qualitative Function-Based Simulation Data,” AIEDAM J., 28(4), pp. 385–398. [CrossRef]
Bugallo, M. , and Djurić, P. , 2008, “ Complex Systems and Particle Filtering,” 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Oct. 26–29, pp. 1183–1187.
Grabowski, F. , and Strzalka, D. , 2008, “ Simple, Complicated and Complex Systems—The Brief Introduction,” Conference on Human System Interactions, May 25–27, pp. 570–573.
Simpson, T. W. , and Martins, J. R. R. A. , 2011, “ Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Complex Engineered Systems: Report From a National Science Foundation Workshop,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(10), p. 101002. [CrossRef]
Lewis, K. , 2012, “ Making Sense of Elegant Complexity in Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(12), p. 120801. [CrossRef]
Minai, A. A. , Braha, D. , and Bar-Yam, Y. , 2006, “ Complex Engineered Systems: A New Paradigm,” Complex Engineered Systems: Science Meets Technology, D. Braha , A. A. Minai , and Y. Bar-Yam , eds., Springer, Berlin, pp. 1–21.
Bloebaum, C. L. , and McGowan, A.-M. R. , 2010, “ Design of Complex Engineered Systems,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(12), p. 120301. [CrossRef]
Newman, M. E. J. , 2010, Networks: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, New York.
Kasthurirathna, D. , Dong, A. , Piraveenan, M. , and Tumer, I. Y. , 2013, “ The Failure Tolerance of Mechatronic Software Systems to Random and Targeted Attacks,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-12188.
Piraveenan, M. , Thedchanamoorthy, G. , Uddin, S. , and Chung, K. , 2013, “ Quantifying Topological Robustness of Networks Under Sustained Targeted Attacks,” Soc. Network Anal. Min., 3(4), pp. 939–952. [CrossRef]
Sarkar, S. , Dong, A. , and Gero, J. S. , 2009, “ Design Optimization Problem Reformulation Using Singular Value Decomposition,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 131(8), p. 081006. [CrossRef]
Michelena, N. F. , and Papalambros, P. Y. , 1995, “ A Network Reliability Approach to Optimal Decomposition of Design Problems,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 117(3), pp. 433–440. [CrossRef]
Sarkar, S. , Dong, A. , and Gero, J. S. , 2010, “ Learning Symbolic Formulations in Design: Syntax, Semantics, Knowledge Reification,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 24(1), pp. 63–85. [CrossRef]
Grassi, R. , Stefani, S. , and Torriero, A. , 2011, “ Using Bipartite Graphs to Assess Power in Organizational Networks: A Case Study,” Dyn. Socio-Econ. Syst., 2(2), pp. 199–216. http://hdl.handle.net/10807/14096
Sarkar, S. , Dong, A. , and Gero, J. , 2009, “ Design Optimization Problem Reformulation Using Singular Value Decomposition,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 131(8), p. 0810061. [CrossRef]
Joshi, A. , and Heimdahl, M. , 2007, “ Behavioral Fault Modeling for Model-Based Safety Analysis,” 10th IEEE High Assurance Systems Engineering Symposium, HASE’07, Nov. 14–16, IEEE, New York, pp. 199–208.
O'Halloran, B. , Haley, B. , Jensen, D. , Stone, R. , and Tumer, I. Y. , 2014, “ The Early Implementation of Failure Modes Into Component Model Libraries,” J. Res. Eng. Des., 25(3), pp. 203–221. [CrossRef]
Bounova, G. , and de Weck, O. , 2012, “ Overview of Metrics and Their Correlation Patterns for Multiple-Metric Topology Analysis on Heterogeneous Graph Ensembles,” Phys. Rev. E, 85(1), p. 016117. [CrossRef]
Harris, T. , and Kotzalas, M. , 2007, “ Kinematic Speeds, Friction Torque, and Power Loss,” Essential Concepts of Bearing Technology, 5th ed., Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 184–195.
Schlegel, C. , Hosl, A. , and Diel, S. , 2009, “ Detailed Loss of Modelling of Vehicle Gearboxes,” 7th Modelica Conference, Como, Italy, Sept. 20–22, pp. 434–443.
Braha, D. , and Bar-Yam, Y. , 2007, “ The Statistical Mechanics of Complex Product Development: Empirical and Analytical Results,” Manage. Sci., 53(7), pp. 1127–1145. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Bipartite network. Two node types, three nodes within type 1 and four nodes within type 2.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Bipartite adjacency matrix A for network in Fig. 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Typical network profile [39]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Idealized network profile [39]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Drivetrain model constructed in openmodelica [14]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Simulation results of a drivetrain: nominal (solid/blue line) and slipping clutch (dashed/red line)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Bipartite network graph of drivetrain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Adjacency matrix for nominally operating drivetrain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Adjacency matrix for failed drivetrain clutch, FV2=0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Small-scale drivetrain network topology results for failed mu in clutch

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Small-scale drivetrain network topology results for the independent failure of all nodes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

DARPA AVM drivetrain with no controls system model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

No controls drivetrain network topology results for a single failed variable

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

No controls drivetrain network topology results for the independent failure of all nodes

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In