0
Research Papers: Design Theory and Methodology

Visualizing Relations Between Grammar Rules, Objectives, and Search Space Exploration in Grammar-Based Computational Design Synthesis1

[+] Author and Article Information
Corinna Königseder

Mem. ASME
Engineering Design and Computing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical
and Process Engineering,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: ck@ethz.ch

Kristina Shea

Mem. ASME
Engineering Design and Computing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical
and Process Engineering,
ETH Zurich,
Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: kshea@ethz.ch

Contributed by the Design Theory and Methodology Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received September 29, 2015; final manuscript received July 18, 2016; published online August 30, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Carolyn Seepersad.

J. Mech. Des 138(10), 101101 (Aug 30, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: MD-15-1677; doi: 10.1115/1.4034270 History: Received September 29, 2015; Revised July 18, 2016

Design grammars have been successfully applied in numerous engineering disciplines, e.g., in electrical engineering, architecture, and mechanical engineering. A successful application of design grammars in computational design synthesis (CDS) requires (a) meaningful representation of designs and the design task at hand, (b) careful formulation of grammar rules to synthesize new designs, (c) problem-specific design evaluation, and (d) selection of an appropriate algorithm to guide the synthesis process. Determining these different components of a CDS method requires not only a detailed understanding of each individual part but also of the interdependencies between them. In this paper, a new method is presented to support both CDS method development and application. The method analyzes the designs generated during the synthesis process and visualizes how the design space is explored with respect to design characteristics and objectives. The search algorithm as well as the grammar rules are analyzed with this approach. Two case studies, the synthesis of gearboxes and of bicycle frames, demonstrate how the method can be used to analyze the different components of CDS methods. The presented research can analyze the interplay between grammar rules and the search process during method development.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Cagan, J. , Campbell, M. I. , Finger, S. , and Tomiyama, T. , 2005, “ A Framework for Computational Design Synthesis: Model and Applications,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 5(3), pp. 171–181. [CrossRef]
Karavirta, V. , Korhonen, A. , Malmi, L. , and Naps, T. , 2010, “ A Comprehensive Taxonomy of Algorithm Animation Languages,” J. Visual Languages Comput., 21(1), pp. 1–22. [CrossRef]
Hundhausen, C. D. , Douglas, S. A. , and Stasko, J. T. , 2002, “ A Meta-Study of Algorithm Visualization Effectiveness,” J. Visual Languages Comput., 13(3), pp. 259–290. [CrossRef]
Chakrabarti, A. , Shea, K. , Stone, R. , Cagan, J. , Campbell, M. , Hernandez, N. V. , and Wood, K. L. , 2011, “ Computer-Based Design Synthesis Research: An Overview,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 11(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Helms, B. , and Shea, K. , 2012, “ Computational Synthesis of Product Architectures Based on Object-Oriented Graph Grammars,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(2), p. 021008. [CrossRef]
McKay, A. , Chase, S. , Shea, K. , and Chau, H. H. , 2012, “ Spatial Grammar Implementation: From Theory to Useable Software,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des., Anal. Manuf., 26(2), pp. 143–159. [CrossRef]
Königseder, C. , and Shea, K. , 2014, “ Systematic Rule Analysis of Generative Design Grammars,” AI EDAM, 28(3), pp. 227–238.
Königseder, C. , Stanković, T. , and Shea, K. , 2015, “ Improving Generative Grammar Development and Application Through Network Analysis Techniques,” International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED), Milano, Italy, pp. 167–176.
Knowlton, K. , 1966, “ Bell Telephone Laboratories Low-Level Linked List Language (16-Minute Black and White Film),” Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ.
Baecker, R. , 1981, “ Sorting Out Sorting (30 Minutes),” Media Centre Production, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Brown, M. H. , and Sedgewick, R. , 1985, “ Techniques for Algorithm Animation,” IEEE Software, 2(1), pp. 28–39. [CrossRef]
Price, B. A. , Baecker, R. M. , and Small, I. S. , 1993, “ A Principled Taxonomy of Software Visualization,” J. Visual Languages Comput., 4(3), pp. 211–266. [CrossRef]
Kerren, A. , and Stasko, J. T. , 2002, “ Algorithm Animation,” Software Visualization, Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 1–15.
Messac, A. , and Chen, X. , 2000, “ Visualizing the Optimization Process in Real-Time Using Physical Programming,” Eng. Optim., 32(6), pp. 721–747. [CrossRef]
Diehl, S. , 2007, Software Visualization: Visualizing the Structure, Behaviour, and Evolution of Software, Springer, Berlin, Germany.
Tovares, N. , Boatwright, P. , and Cagan, J. , 2014, “ Experiential Conjoint Analysis: An Experience-Based Method for Eliciting, Capturing, and Modeling Consumer Preference,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(10), p. 101404. [CrossRef]
Ren, Y. , and Papalambros, P. Y. , 2011, “ A Design Preference Elicitation Query as an Optimization Process,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(11), p. 111004. [CrossRef]
Wyatt, D. F. , Wynn, D. C. , and Clarkson, P. J. , 2013, “ A Scheme for Numerical Representation of Graph Structures in Engineering Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(1), p. 011010. [CrossRef]
Stump, G. M. , Yukish, M. , Simpson, T. W. , and Harris, E. N. , 2003, “ Design Space Visualization and Its Application to a Design by Shopping Paradigm,” ASME Paper No. DETC2003/DAC-48785.
Behdad, S. , Berg, L. P. , Thurston, D. , and Vance, J. , 2014, “ Leveraging Virtual Reality Experiences With Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming Visualization of Disassembly Sequence Planning Under Uncertainty,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(4), p. 041005. [CrossRef]
Keller, R. , Flanagan, T. L. , Eckert, C. M. , and Clarkson, P. J. , 2006, “ Two Sides of the Story: Visualising Products and Processes in Engineering Design,” Tenth International Conference on Information Visualization IV 2006, pp. 362–367.
Bernstein, W. Z. , Ramanujan, D. , Kulkarni, D. M. , Tew, J. , Elmqvist, N. , Zhao, F. , and Ramani, K. , 2015, “ Mutually Coordinated Visualization of Product and Supply Chain Metadata for Sustainable Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137(12), p. 121101. [CrossRef]
Suppapitnarm, A. , Seffen, K. , Parks, G. , Connor, A. , and Clarkson, P. , 1999, “ Multiobjective Optimisation of Bicycle Frames Using Simulated Annealing,” Conference on Engineering Design Optimization, Ilkley, UK, pp. 357–364.
Campbell, M. I. , Rai, R. , and Kurtoglu, T. , 2012, “ A Stochastic Tree-Search Algorithm for Generative Grammars,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 12(3), p. 031006. [CrossRef]
Chakrabarti, A. , Shea, K. , Stone, R. , Cagan, J. , Campbell, M. , Hernandez, N. V. , and Wood, K. L. , 2011, “ Computer-Based Design Synthesis Research: An Overview,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 11(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Chase, S. C. , 2002, “ A Model for User Interaction in Grammar-Based Design Systems,” Autom. Constr., 11(2), pp. 161–172. [CrossRef]
Geiß, R. , Batz, G. , Grund, D. , Hack, S. , and Szalkowski, A. , 2006, “ GrGen: A Fast SPO-Based Graph Rewriting Tool,” Graph Transformations, A. Corradini , H. Ehrig , U. Montanari , L. Ribeiro , and G. Rozenberg , eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 383–397.
Cash, P. , Stanković, T. , and Štorga, M. , 2014, “ Using Visual Information Analysis to Explore Complex Patterns in the Activity of Designers,” Des. Stud., 35(1), pp. 1–28. [CrossRef]
Barnes, J. , and Hut, P. , 1986, “ A Hierarchical O(N log N) Force-Calculation Algorithm,” Nature, 324(6096), pp. 446–449. [CrossRef]
Suppapitnarm, A. , Parks, G. T. , Shea, K. , and Clarkson, P. J. , 2004, “ Conceptual Design of Bicycle Frames by Multiobjective Shape Annealing,” Eng. Optim., 36(2), pp. 165–188. [CrossRef]
Königseder, C. , and Shea, K. , 2015, “ Comparing Strategies for Topologic and Parametric Rule Application in Automated Computational Design Synthesis,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 138(1), p. 011102. [CrossRef]
Vale, C. A. W. , 2002, “ Multiobjective Dynamic Synthesis Via Machine Learning,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Bolognini, F. , 2008, “ An Integrated Simulation-Based Generative Design Method for Microelectromechanical Systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Stöckli, F. R. , and Shea, K. , 2015, “ A Simulation-Driven Graph Grammar Method for the Automated Synthesis of Passive Dynamic Brachiating Robots,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-47641.
Schmidt, L. C. , Shetty, H. , and Chase, S. C. , 2000, “ A Graph Grammar Approach for Structure Synthesis of Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 122(4), pp. 371–376. [CrossRef]
Li, X. , and Schmidt, L. , 2004, “ Grammar-Based Designer Assistance Tool for Epicyclic Gear Trains,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 126(5), pp. 895–902. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. S. , Shea, K. , Johnson, A. , Coultate, J. , and Pears, J. , 2010, “ A Method and Software Tool for Automated Gearbox Synthesis,” International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, ASME Paper No. DETC2009-86935.
Starling, A. C. , and Shea, K. , 2005, “ A Parallel Grammar for Simulation-Driven Mechanical Design Synthesis,” International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, ASME Paper No. DETC2005-85414.
Starling, A. C. , 2004, “ Performance-Based Computational Synthesis of Parametric Mechanical Systems,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Swantner, A. , and Campbell, M. I. , 2012, “ Topological and Parametric Optimization of Gear Trains,” Eng. Optim., 44(11), pp. 1351–1368. [CrossRef]
Pomrehn, L. P. , and Papalambros, P. Y. , 1995, “ Discrete Optimal Design Formulations With-Application to Gear Train Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 117(3), pp. 419–424. [CrossRef]
Gary, S. , Mike, Y. , Jay, M. , and Timothy, S. , 2004, “ The ARL Trade Space Visualizer: An Engineering Decision-Making Tool,” AIAA Paper No. AIAA 2004-4568.
German, B. J. , Feigh, K. M. , and Daskilewicz, M. J. , 2013, “ An Experimental Study of Continuous and Discrete Visualization Paradigms for Interactive Trade Space Exploration,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 13(2), p. 021004. [CrossRef]
Inselberg, A. , 1985, “ The Plane With Parallel Coordinates,” Visual Comput., 1(2), pp. 69–91. [CrossRef]
Hoisl, F. , and Shea, K. , 2011, “ An Interactive, Visual Approach to Developing and Applying Parametric Three-Dimensional Spatial Grammars,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des., Anal. Manuf., 25(4), pp. 333–356. [CrossRef]
Seriai, A. , Benomar, O. , Cerat, B. , and Sahraoui, H. , 2014, “ Validation of Software Visualization Tools: A Systematic Mapping Study,” IEEE Working Conference on Software Visualization, pp. 60–69.
Fekete, J.-D. , van Wijk, J. , Stasko, J. , and North, C. , 2008, “ The Value of Information Visualization,” Information Visualization, A. Kerren , et al.  . , eds., Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 1–18.
van Wijk, J. J. , 2006, “ Views on Visualization,” IEEE Trans. Visualization Comput. Graphics, 12(4), pp. 421–432. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Architecture diagram showing how research fields in Sec. 2 relate to each other

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

The generic CDS process as proposed in Cagan et al. [1]. Figure redrawn.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

User interaction scenario 5 according to Ref. [26] (top) and proposed scenario with the method visualized in black boxes (bottom)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Extended generic CDS process. Adapted from Ref. [1].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Example data to visualize the method. At the top, an example rule set is shown consisting of two rules. The table (bottom) shows datasets for six iterations. The last column of the table shows the unique topology IDs identified in the postprocessing step.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

UTS (left) with nodes representing unique topologies (§) and edges representing rule applications, PS (top right) with nodes representing positions of designs (#) in the PS and vectors representing changes of objective function values due to rule applications, and rule analysis (bottom right) representing changes by rule applications as vectors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Overview of which visualization is used to analyze the effect of a CDS component on the generated designs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic overview of the implementation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Overview of the bicycle frame synthesis case study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Schematic overview of the Burst algorithm (effect of the maximum Burst length in highlighted step is explored in both case studies)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Overview of the SA algorithm (effect of the highlighted step is explored in both case studies)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Visualization of the progression of the algorithm in the UTS. (a) shows the start and the following subfigures (b)–(d) show how new topologies are explored (new nodes) and existing ones are exploited (increasing node size). Designs that are explored from one subfigure to the next are highlighted.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

UTSs for three example runs with 1000 iterations each, using the Burst algorithm with the maximum BL set to 1 (top), 5 (middle), and 20 (bottom)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

UTSs for example runs with 1000 iterations each: left—SA without RTB with zoomed-in view (bottom); right—SA with RTB every 100 iterations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Example RAPs for parametric (left) and topologic (right) rules

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Overview of the gearbox case study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

UTSs for three example runs with 1000 iterations each, using the Burst algorithm with the maximum BL set to 1 (top), 5 (middle), and 20 (bottom)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

UTS and pictorial representations for the topologies generated with the Burst algorithm (maximum BL = 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

UTSs for two experiments with 1000 iterations each using the SA algorithm without RTB (left) and with RTB every 100 iterations (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Exploration of the PS during SA with RTB

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In