0
Research Papers: Design Theory and Methodology

Discovery of Mental Metadata Used for Analogy Formation in Function-Based Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Ryan M. Arlitt

School of Mechanical, Industrial, and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
204 Rogers Hall,
Corvallis, OR 97331
e-mail: arlittr@oregonstate.edu

Anthony A. Nix, Robert B. Stone

School of Mechanical, Industrial, and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Oregon State University,
204 Rogers Hall,
Corvallis, OR 97331

Chiradeep Sen

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Florida Institute of Technology,
Melbourne, FL 32901

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Theory and Methodology Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received February 5, 2016; final manuscript received June 6, 2016; published online August 30, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Katja Holtta-Otto.

J. Mech. Des 138(10), 101110 (Aug 30, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: MD-16-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4034090 History: Received February 05, 2016; Revised June 06, 2016

Applying previous solutions to solve new problems is a core aspect of design, and designers routinely use informal analogies to solve a wide variety of design problems. However, when the goal is to consider a large quantity and variety of creative solutions, relying on informal analogy recall may limit the analogy and solution breadth. This paper reports on work to identify the analogy connections that designers make during concept generation such that computational support can be employed to intentionally retrieve analogical solutions from existing systems. A study of the types of similarity that are commonly used to draw design analogies, and whether some types of similarity are used more frequently in compound analogy versus single analogy, was designed and implemented. The experiment consists of a design task and a follow up interview. Ten mechanical engineering graduate students specializing in design participated. Eight different types of analogical similarity are observed, and each type is equally likely to be used to form either single or compound analogies. Notably, the flow behavior was a commonly observed type of abstract similarity that helped designers notice connections across domains, suggesting the value of capturing and retrieving (computationally) flow behavior abstractions for the purpose of relating systems analogically.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Ball, L. J. , Ormerod, T. C. , and Morley, N. J. , 2004, “ Spontaneous Analogising in Engineering Design: A Comparative Analysis of Experts and Novices,” Des. Stud., 25(5), pp. 495–508. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. , Wood, K. , and Markman, A. , 2008, “ Modality and Representation in Analogy,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 22(2), pp. 85–100. [CrossRef]
Fu, K. , Chan, J. , Cagan, J. , Kotovsky, K. , Schunn, C. , and Wood, K. , 2013, “ The Meaning of ‘Near’ and ‘Far’: The Impact of Structuring Design Databases and the Effect of Distance of Analogy on Design Output,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(2), p. 021007. [CrossRef]
Fu, K. , Chan, J. , Schunn, C. , Cagan, J. , and Kotovsky, K. , 2013, “ Testing the Basis for an Automated Design-by-Analogy Tool Through Comparison to Expert Thinking,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-12128.
Goel, A. , and Craw, S. , 2005, “ Design, Innovation and Case-Based Reasoning,” Knowl. Eng. Rev., 20(3), pp. 271–276. [CrossRef]
Pahl, G. , Beitz, W. , Feldhusen, J. , and Grote, K. H. , 2007, Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, Heidelberg, Germany.
Ullman, D. G. , 2010, The Mechanical Design Process, McGraw-Hill, Boston.
Otto, K. , and Wood, K. , 2001, Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering, Systematic Design, and New Product Development, Prentice-Hall, New York.
Ulrich, K. T. , and Eppinger, S. D. , 2004, Product Design and Development, McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston.
Hirtz, J. , Stone, R. , McAdams, D. , Szykman, S. , and Wood, K. , 2002, “ A Functional Basis for Engineering Design: Reconciling and Evolving Previous Efforts,” Res. Eng. Des., 13(2), pp. 65–82.
Ahmed, S. , and Wallace, K. , 2003, “ Evaluating a Functional Basis,” ASME Paper No. DETC2003/DTM-48685.
Kurtoglu, T. , Campbell, M. I. , Arnold, C. B. , Stone, R. B. , and Mcadams, D. A. , 2009, “ A Component Taxonomy as a Framework for Computational Design Synthesis,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 9(1), p. 011007. [CrossRef]
Casakin, H. , and Goldschmidt, G. , 1999, “ Expertise and the Use of Visual Analogy: Implications for Design Education,” Des. Stud., 20(2), pp. 153–175. [CrossRef]
Christensen, B. T. , and Schunn, C. D. , 2007, “ The Relationship of Analogical Distance to Analogical Function and Pre-Inventive Structure: The Case of Engineering Design,” Mem. Cognit., 35(1), pp. 29–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Eckert, C. M. , Stacey, M. , and Earl, C. , 2005, “ References to Past Designs,” Studying Designers'05, J. S. Gero and N. Bonnardel , eds., Aix-en-Provence, France, Oct. 17–18, Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, Sydney, Australia, pp. 3–21.
Leclercq, P. , and Heylighen, A. , 2002, “ 5,8 Analogies per Hour,” Artificial Intelligence in Design’02, J. S. Gero, ed., Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 285–303.
Gick, M. L. , and Holyoak, K. J. , 1980, “ Analogical Problem Solving,” Cognit. Psychol., 12(3), pp. 306–355. [CrossRef]
Kolodner, J. L. , 1997, “ Educational Implications of Analogy: A View From Case-Based Reasoning,” Am. Psychol., 52(1), pp. 57–66. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Gordon, W. J. , 1961, Synectics: The Development of Creative Capacity, Harper & Row, New York.
Cross, N. , 2008, Engineering Design Methods: Strategies for Product Design, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Falkenhainer, B. , Forbus, K. D. , and Gentner, D. , 1989, “ The Structure-Mapping Engine: Algorithm and Examples,” Artif. Intell., 41(1), pp. 1–63. [CrossRef]
Gentner, D. , 1983, “ Structure-Mapping: A Theoretical Framework for Analogy,” Cognit. Sci., 7(2), pp. 155–170. [CrossRef]
Clement, J. , 1988, “ Observed Methods for Generating Analogies in Scientific Problem Solving,” Cognit. Sci., 12(4), pp. 563–586. [CrossRef]
Clement, J. , 2008, Creative Model Construction in Scientists and Students: The Role of Imagery, Analogy, and Mental Stimulation, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Goel, A. , and Bhatta, S. , 2004, “ Design Patterns: An Unit of Analogical Transfer in Creative Design,” Adv. Eng. Inf., 18(2), pp. 85–94. [CrossRef]
Goel, A. , 1997, “ Design, Analogy and Creativity,” IEEE Expert Intell. Syst. Their Appl., 12(3), pp. 62–70.
Maher, M. , Balachandran, M. , and Zhang, D. M. , 1995, Case-Based Reasoning in Design, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.
Gick, M. , and Holyoak, K. J. , 1983, “ Schema Induction and Analogical Transfer,” Cognit. Psychol., 15(1), pp. 1–38. [CrossRef]
Bhatta, S. , and Goel, A. , 1997, “ Learning Generic Mechanisms for Innovative Design Adaptation,” J. Learn. Sci., 6(4), pp. 367–396. [CrossRef]
Griffith, T. W. , Nersessian, N. J. , and Goel, A. , 1996, “ The Role of Generic Models in Conceptual Change,” 18th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, San Diego, CA, July 12–15, pp. 312–317.
Griffith, T. , Nersessian, N. , and Goel, A. , 2000, “ Function-Follows-Form: Generative Modeling in Scientific Reasoning,” 22nd Cognitive Science Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Aug. 13–15, pp. 196–201.
Nersessian, N. , 2008, Creating Scientific Concepts, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Vattam, S. S. , Helms, M. E. , and Goel, A. K. , 2008, “ Compound Analogical Design: Interaction Between Problem Decomposition and Analogical Transfer in Biologically Inspired Design,” Design Computing and Cognition’08: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, Atlanta, GA, June 21–25, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 377–396.
Gero, J. S. , and Kannengiesser, U. , 2002, “ The Situated Function–Behaviour–Structure Framework,” Artificial Intelligence in Design’02, J. S. Gero, ed., Springer Science+Business Media, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 89–104.
Dinar, M. , Shah, J. , Langley, P. , Hunt, G. , and Campana, E. , 2011, “ A Structure for Representing Problem Formulation in Design,” 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), S. Culley, B. Hicks, T. McAloone, T. Howard, and W. Chen, eds., Lyngby/Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug. 15–19, pp. 392–401.
Danielescu, A. , Dinar, M. , MacLellan, C. , Shah, J. J. , and Langley, P. , 2012, “ The Structure of Creative Design: What Problem Maps Can Tell Us About Problem Formulation and Creative Designers,” ASME Paper No. DETC2012-70325.
Sen, C. , 2011, “ A Formal Representation of Mechanical Functions to Support Physics-Based Computational Reasoning in Early Mechanical Design,” Ph.D. thesis, Clemson University, Clemson, SC.
Kadar-Cabelli, S. , 1985, “ Purpose-Directed Analogy,” 7th Annual Conference of Cognitive Science Society, Irvine, CA, Aug. 15–17, Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 150–159.
Helms, M. , and Goel, A. K. , 2014, “ The Four-Box Method of Problem Specification and Analogy Evaluation in Biologically Inspired Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC2014-35672.
Chakrabarti, A. , Sarkar, P. , Leelavathamma, B. , and Nataraju, B. , 2005, “ A Functional Representation for Aiding Biomimetic and Artificial Inspiration of New Ideas,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 19(2), pp. 113–132. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. , Markman, A. , and Wood, K. , 2008, “ WordTrees: A Method for Design-by-Analogy,” American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, ASEE, Pittsburgh, PA, June 22–25, Paper No. AC 2008-1669.
Lucero, B. M. , 2007, “ Design-Analogy Performance Parameter System (D-APPS),” Ph.D. thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO.
Summers, J. , Maxwell, D. , Camp, C. , and Butler, A. , 2000, “ Features as an Abstraction for Designer Convenience in the Design of Complex Products,” ASME Paper No. DETC00/CIE14642.
Regli, W. C. , and Cicirello, V. A. , 2000, “ Managing Digital Libraries for Computer-Aided Design,” Comput.-Aided Des., 32(2), pp. 119–132. [CrossRef]
Bohm, M. , Stone, R. , and Szykman, S. , 2005, “ Enhancing Virtual Product Representations for Advanced Design Repository Systems,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 5(4), pp. 360–372. [CrossRef]
Bryant, C. R. , McAdams, D. A. , Stone, R. B. , Kurtoglu, T. , and Campbell, M. , 2006, “ A Validation Study of an Automated Concept Generator Design Tool,” ASME Paper No. DETC2006-99489.
Bohm, M. R. , Vucovich, J. P. , and Stone, R. B. , 2008, “ Using a Design Repository to Drive Concept Generation,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 8(1), p. 014502. [CrossRef]
Shooter, S. , Simpson, T. , Kumara, S. , Stone, R. , and Terpenny, J. , 2005, “ Toward a Multi-Agent Information Management Infrastructure for Product Family Planning and Mass Customisation,” Int. J. Mass Customisation, 1(1), pp. 134–155. [CrossRef]
Bohm, M. , Stone, R. , Simpson, T. , and Steva, E. , 2008, “ Introduction of a Data Schema: To Support a Design Repository,” Comput.-Aided Des., 40(7), pp. 801–811. [CrossRef]
Bohm, M. R. , Stone, R. B. , Simpson, T. W. , and Steva, E. D. , 2006, “ Introduction of a Data Schema: The Inner Workings of a Design Repository,” ASME Paper No. DETC2006-99518.
Ullman, D. G. , Dietterich, T. G. , and Stauffer, L. A. , 1988, “ A Model of the Mechanical Design Process Based on Empirical Data,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 2(1), pp. 33–52. [CrossRef]
Baya, V. , 1996, “ Information Handling Behaviour of Designers During Conceptual Design: Three Experiments,” Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Sonalkar, N. , Mabogunje, A. , and Leifer, L. , 2013, “ Developing a Visual Representation to Characterize Moment-to-Moment Concept Generation in Design Teams,” Int. J. Des. Creativity Innovation, 1(2), pp. 93–108. [CrossRef]
Cagan, J. , Dinar, M. , Shah, J. J. , Leifer, L. , Linsey, J. , Smith, S. , and Vargas-Hernandez, N. , 2013, “ Empirical Studies of Design Thinking: Past, Present, Future,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-13302.
Glaser, B. G. , and Strauss, A. L. , 2009, The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research, Transaction Publishers, Piscataway, NJ.
Ericsson, K. A. , 2006, “ Protocol Analysis and Expert Thought: Concurrent Verbalizations of Thinking During Experts' Performance on Representative Tasks,” The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 223–242.
Aurisicchio, M. , Bracewell, R. H. , and Wallace, K. M. , 2006, “ Characterising in Detail the Information Requests of Engineering Designers,” ASME Paper No. DETC2006-99418.
Cohen, J. , 1960, “ A Coefficient of Agreement for Nominal Scales,” Educ. Psychol. Meas., 20(1), pp. 37–46. [CrossRef]
Landis, J. R. , and Koch, G. G. , 1977, “ The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data,” Biometrics, 33(1), pp. 159–174. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cardillo, G. , 2010, “ MyFisher: The Definitive Function for the Fisher's Exact and Conditional Test for Any R × C Matrix,” The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA.
Helms, M. E. , Vattam, S. S. , and Goel, A. K. , 2009, “ Biologically Inspired Design: Process and Products,” Des. Stud., 30(5), pp. 606–622. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experiment design prompt and task 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Subject speech and sketch describing a single solution analogy event

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In