Research Papers: Design Automation

Topology Generation for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Architecture Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Alparslan Emrah Bayrak

Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: bayrak@umich.edu

Yi Ren

Mechanical Engineering,
Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ 85287
e-mail: yiren@asu.edu

Panos Y. Papalambros

Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: pyp@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received December 5, 2015; final manuscript received May 11, 2016; published online June 13, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Massimiliano Gobbi.

J. Mech. Des 138(8), 081401 (Jun 13, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: MD-15-1800; doi: 10.1115/1.4033656 History: Received December 05, 2015; Revised May 11, 2016

Existing hybrid powertrain architectures, i.e., the connections from engine and motors to the vehicle output shaft, are designed for particular vehicle applications, e.g., passenger cars or city buses, to achieve good fuel economy. For effective electrification of new applications (e.g., heavy-duty trucks or racing cars), new architectures may need to be identified to accommodate the particular vehicle specifications and drive cycles. The exploration of feasible architectures is combinatorial in nature and is conventionally based on human intuition. We propose a mathematically rigorous algorithm to enumerate all feasible powertrain architectures, therefore enabling automated optimal powertrain design. The proposed method is general enough to account for single and multimode architectures as well as different number of planetary gears (PGs) and powertrain components. We demonstrate through case studies that our method can generate the complete sets of feasible designs, including the ones available in the market and in patents.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Folkesson, A. , Andersson, C. , Alvfors, P. , Alaküla, M. , and Overgaard, L. , 2003, “ Real Life Testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus,” J. Power Sources, 118(1), pp. 349–357. [CrossRef]
Gao, D. , Jin, Z. , and Lu, Q. , 2008, “ Energy Management Strategy Based on Fuzzy Logic for a Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus,” J. Power Sources, 185(1), pp. 311–317. [CrossRef]
Evans, D. G. , Polom, M. E. , Poulos, S. G. , Van Maanen, K. D. , and Zarger, T. H. , 2003, “ Powertrain Architecture and Controls Integration for GM's Hybrid Full-Size Pickup Truck,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2003-01-0085.
Lin, C.-C. , Peng, H. , Grizzle, J. W. , and Kang, J.-M. , 2003, “ Power Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Truck,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol., 11(6), pp. 839–849. [CrossRef]
Liu, J. , 2007, “ Modeling, Configuration and Control Optimization of Power-Split Hybrid Vehicles,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Kicinger, R. , Arciszewski, T. , and Jong, K. D. , 2005, “ Evolutionary Computation and Structural Design: A Survey of the State-of-the-Art,” Comput. Struct., 83(23), pp. 1943–1978. [CrossRef]
Bendsøe, M. P. , and Kikuchi, N. , 1988, “ Generating Optimal Topologies in Structural Design Using a Homogenization Method,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 71(2), pp. 197–224. [CrossRef]
Roth, B. , 1967, “ Finite-Position Theory Applied to Mechanism Synthesis,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 34(3), pp. 599–605. [CrossRef]
Raghavan, M. , 1989, “ Analytical Methods for Designing Linkages to Match Force Specifications,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.
Koza, J. R. , Bennett, F. H., III , Andre, D. , Keane, M. A. , and Dunlap, F. , 1997, “ Automated Synthesis of Analog Electrical Circuits by Means of Genetic Programming,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., 1(2), pp. 109–128. [CrossRef]
Schneider, G. , and Fechner, U. , 2005, “ Computer-Based De Novo Design of Drug-Like Molecules,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discovery, 4(8), pp. 649–663. [CrossRef]
Wu, Z. , Campbell, M. I. , and Fernández, B. R. , 2008, “ Bond Graph Based Automated Modeling for Computer-Aided Design of Dynamic Systems,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(4), p. 041102. [CrossRef]
Starling, A. C. , and Shea, K. , 2005, “ A Parallel Grammar for Simulation-Driven Mechanical Design Synthesis,” ASME Paper No. DETC2005-85414.
Campbell, M. I. , Cagan, J. , and Kotovsky, K. , 2000, “ Agent-Based Synthesis of Electromechanical Design Configurations,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 122(1), pp. 61–69. [CrossRef]
Hsieh, H.-I. , and Tsai, L.-W. , 1996, “ A Methodology for Enumeration of Clutching Sequences Associated With Epicyclic-Type Automatic Transmission Mechanisms,” SAE Technical Paper No. 960719.
Kahraman, A. , Ligata, H. , Kienzle, K. , and Zini, D. , 2004, “ A Kinematics and Power Flow Analysis Methodology for Automatic Transmission Planetary Gear Trains,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 126(6), pp. 1071–1081. [CrossRef]
Conlon, B. M. , Savagian, P. J. , Holmes, A. G. , and Harpster, M. O. , 2011, “ Output Split Electrically-Variable Transmission With Electric Propulsion Using One or Two Motors,” U.S. Patent No. 7,867,124.
Sasaki, S. , 1998, “ Toyota's Newly Developed Hybrid Powertrain,” 10th International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs, IEEE Press, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 17–22.
Schmidt, M. , 1996, “ Two-Mode, Split Power, Electro-Mechanical Transmission,” U.S. Patent No. 5,577,973.
Schmidt, M. , 1996, “ Two-Mode, Input-Split, Parallel, Hybrid Transmission,” U.S. Patent No. 5,558,588.
Holmes, A. , and Schmidt, M. , 2002, “ Hybrid Electric Powertrain Including a Two-Mode Electrically Variable Transmission,” U.S. Patent No. 6,478,705.
Holmes, A. , Klemen, D. , and Schmidt, M. , 2003, “ Electrically Variable Transmission With Selective Input Split, Compound Split, Neutral and Reverse Modes,” U.S. Patent No. 6,527,658.
Ai, X. , and Anderson, S. , 2005, “ An Electro-Mechanical Infinitely Variable Transmission for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-0281.
Schmidt, M. , 1999, “ Two-Mode, Compound-Split Electro-Mechanical Vehicular Transmission,” U.S. Patent No. 5,931,757.
Raghavan, M. , Bucknor, N. K. , and Hendrickson, J. D. , 2007, “ Electrically Variable Transmission Having Three Interconnected Planetary Gear Sets, Two Clutches and Two Brakes,” U.S. Patent No. 7,179,187.
Zhang, X. , Li, C.-T. , Kum, D. , and Peng, H. , 2012, “ Prius+ and Volt−: Configuration Analysis of Power-Split Hybrid Vehicles With a Single Planetary Gear,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., 61(8), pp. 3544–3552. [CrossRef]
Cheong, K. L. , Li, P. Y. , and Chase, T. R. , 2011, “ Optimal Design of Power-Split Transmissions for Hydraulic Hybrid Passenger Vehicles,” 2011 American Control Conference, IEEE Press, San Francisco, CA, pp. 3295–3300.
Zhang, X. , Li, S. E. , Peng, H. , and Sun, J. , 2015, “ Efficient Exhaustive Search of Power-Split Hybrid Powertrains With Multiple Planetary Gears and Clutches,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, 137(12), p. 121006. [CrossRef]
Bayrak, A. E. , Ren, Y. , and Papalambros, P. Y. , 2013, “ Design of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Architecture Using Auto-Generation of Feasible Driving Modes,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-13043.
Bayrak, A. E. , Kang, N. , and Papalambros, P. Y. , 2015, “ Decomposition Based Design Optimization of Hybrid Electric Powertrain Architectures: Simultaneous Configuration and Sizing Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des. (accepted).
Bayrak, A. E. , Kang, N. , and Papalambros, P. Y. , 2015, “ Decomposition-Based Design Optimization of Hybrid Electric Powertrain Architectures: Simultaneous Configuration and Sizing Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC2015-46861.
Benford, H. L. , and Leising, M. B. , 1981, “ The Lever Analogy: A New Tool in Transmission Analysis,” SAE Technical Paper No. 810102.
Chatterjee, G. , and Tsai, L.-W. , 1996, “ Computer-Aided Sketching of Epicyclic-Type Automatic Transmission Gear Trains,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 118(3), pp. 405–411. [CrossRef]
Kim, N. , Kim, J. , and Kim, H. , 2008, “ Control Strategy for a Dual-Mode Electromechanical, Infinitely Variable Transmission for Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 222(9), pp. 1587–1601. [CrossRef]
Karnopp, D. C. , Margolis, D. L. , and Rosenberg, R. C. , 2012, System Dynamics: Modeling, Simulation, and Control of Mechatronic Systems, 5th ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Read, R. C. , and Corneil, D. G. , 1977, “ The Graph Isomorphism Disease,” J. Graph Theory, 1(4), pp. 339–363. [CrossRef]
Fortin, S. , 1996, “ The Graph Isomorphism Problem,” University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Technical Report No. 96-20.
McKay, B. D. , 1981, “ Practical Graph Isomorphism,” Congressus Numerantium, 30, pp. 45–87.
MATLAB, 2014, “ Graph Isomorphism,” The MathWorks, Natick, MA.
Bayrak, A. E. , 2015, “ Topology Considerations in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Architecture Design,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Lever representation of three modes of a modified Chevrolet Volt architecture (without series hybrid mode): (a) hybrid configuration, (b) first pure electric configuration, (c) second pure electric configuration, and (d) combined multimode architecture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Representation of the hybrid configuration of the Chevrolet Volt architecture inFig. 1(a): (a) original bond graph representation of the hybrid configuration of the Chevrolet Volt architecture and (b) modified bond graph representation of the hybrid configuration of the Chevrolet Volt architecture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Example of a modified bond graph representation and its connectivity table

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Configuration generation process flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

A junction with five bonds is equivalently replaced by three junctions with three bonds each

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Two replicates generated from the enumeration process. Both graphs result in the same equation sets after assigning the junction type and bond weights.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

All possible six combinations for the bond weight assignment around a 0-junction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Bond weight scaling for a 0-to-0 junction connection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Three sample connectivity tables and the corresponding clutching solution indicated by dashed boxes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

All the modes of the dual-mode architecture by Ai and Anderson [23]: (a) first hybrid configuration and (b) second hybrid configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

All the modes of the dual-mode architecture by Holmes et al. [22]: (a) first hybrid configuration and (b) second hybrid configuration



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In