Research Papers: Design Automation

Integrated Decision Making in Electric Vehicle and Charging Station Location Network Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Namwoo Kang

Optimal Design Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: nwkang@umich.edu

Fred M. Feinberg

Ross School of Business,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: feinf@umich.edu

Panos Y. Papalambros

Fellow ASME
Optimal Design Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: pyp@umich.edu

On an Intel i7 CPU 860@2.80 GHz and 8.00 GB RAM, an optimization run took 36 hr on average.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received September 24, 2014; final manuscript received February 16, 2015; published online March 30, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Gary Wang.

J. Mech. Des 137(6), 061402 (Jun 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: MD-14-1638; doi: 10.1115/1.4029894 History: Received September 24, 2014; Revised February 16, 2015; Online March 30, 2015

A major barrier in consumer adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is “range anxiety,” the concern that the vehicle will run out of power at an inopportune time. Range anxiety is caused by the current relatively low electric-only operational range and sparse public charging station (CS) infrastructure. Range anxiety may be significantly mitigated if EV manufacturers and CS operators work in partnership using a cooperative business model to balance EV performance and CS coverage. This model is in contrast to a sequential decision-making model where manufacturers bring new EVs to the market first and CS operators decide on CS deployment given EV specifications and market demand. This paper proposes an integrated decision-making framework to assess profitability of a cooperative business model using a multidisciplinary optimization model that combines marketing, engineering, and operations considerations. This model is demonstrated in a case study involving battery EV design and direct current (DC) fast-CS location network in Southeast Michigan. The expected benefits can motive both government and private enterprise actions.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Vardera, L., 2010, The Electric Vehicle Market in the USA, Market Report, Finpro, Stamford, CT.
Egbue, O., and Long, S., 2012, “Barriers to Widespread Adoption of Electric Vehicles: An Analysis of Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions,” Energy Policy, 48, pp. 717–729. [CrossRef]
Kley, F., Lerch, C., and Dallinger, D., 2011, “New Business Models for Electric Cars-A Holistic Approach,” Energy Policy, 39(6), pp. 3392–3403. [CrossRef]
Melaina, M., and Bremson, J., 2008, “Refueling Availability for Alternative Fuel Vehicle Markets: Sufficient Urban Station Coverage,” Energy Policy, 36, pp. 3233–3241. [CrossRef]
Pearre, N., Kempton, W., Guensler, R., and Elango, V., 2011, “Electric Vehicles: How Much Range Is Required for a Days Driving?,” Transp. Res. Part C: Emerging Technol., 19(6), pp. 1171–1184. [CrossRef]
Smart, J., and Schey, S., 2012, “Battery Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior Observed Early in the EV Project,” SAE Int. J. Altern. Powertrains, 1(1), pp. 27–33. [CrossRef]
Wikipedia, 2014, “Nissan Leaf.” Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org
ECOtality, 2014, “The EV Project.” Available at: http://www.theevproject.com
ChargePoint, 2014, “Charge Point.” Available at: http://www.chargepoint.com
Young, A., 2014, “Number of Electric Car Fast Charge Stations.” Available at: http://www.ibtimes.com
AMESim, 2014.” Available at: http://www.lmsintl.com
Chan, H., 2000, “A New Battery Model for Use With Battery Energy Storage Systems and Electric Vehicles Power Systems,” Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, Vol. 1, IEEE, pp. 470–475. [CrossRef]
Lee, S., and Tolbert, L., 2009, “Analytical Method of Torque Calculation for Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines,” Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, IEEE, pp. 173–177.
Tenner, S., Gunther, S., and Hofmann, W., 2011, “Loss Minimization of Electric Drive Systems Using a DC/DC Converter and an Optimized Battery Voltage in Automotive Applications,” Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (VPPC), IEEE, pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
INL, 2011, “2011 Nissan Leaf – VIN 0356 – Advanced Vehicle Testing—Beginning of Test Battery Testing Results,” Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
INL, 2011, “2011 Nissan Leaf—VIN 0356 – Advanced Vehicle Testing—Baseline Testing Results,” Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
Simpson, A., 2006, “Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology,” 22nd International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, pp. 1–12.
Karabasoglu, O., and Michalek, J., 2013, “Influence of Driving Patterns on Life Cycle Cost and Emissions of Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Powertrains,” Energy Policy, 60, pp. 445–461. [CrossRef]
Traut, E., Hendrickson, C., Klampfl, E., Liu, Y., and Michalek, J., 2012, “Optimal Design and Allocation of Electrified Vehicles and Dedicated Charging Infrastructure for Minimum Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Cost,” Energy Policy, 51, pp. 524–534. [CrossRef]
Henry, L., and Lovellette, G., 2011, “Will Electric Cars Transform the U.S. Vehicle Market?,” Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Discussion Paper No. 2011-08.
Hodgson, M., 1990, “A Flow-Capturing Location-Allocation Model,” Geogr. Anal., 22(3), pp. 270–279. [CrossRef]
Kuby, M., and Lim, S., 2005, “The Flow-Refueling Location Problem for Alternative-Fuel Vehicles,” Socio-Econ. Plann. Sci., 39(2), pp. 125–145. [CrossRef]
Kuby, M., Lim, S., and Upchurch, C., 2005, “Dispersion of Nodes Added to a Network,” Geogr. Anal., 37(4), pp. 383–409. [CrossRef]
Kuby, M., and Lim, S., 2007, “Location of Alternative-Fuel Stations Using the Flow-Refueling Location Model and Dispersion of Candidate Sites on Arcs,” Networks Spat. Econ., 7(2), pp. 129–152. [CrossRef]
Upchurch, C., Kuby, M., and Lim, S., 2009, “A Model for Location of Capacitated Alternative-Fuel Stations,” Geogr. Anal., 41(1), pp. 85–106. [CrossRef]
Lim, S., and Kuby, M., 2010, “Heuristic Algorithms for Siting Alternative-Fuel Stations Using the Flow-Refueling Location Model,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., 204(1), pp. 51–61. [CrossRef]
Kim, J., and Kuby, M., 2012, “The Deviation-Flow Refueling Location Model for Optimizing a Network of Refueling Stations,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37(6), pp. 5406–5420. [CrossRef]
EIA, 2014, “Electric Power Monthly With Data for January 2014, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Washington, DC.
Schroeder, A., and Traber, T., 2012, “The Economics of Fast Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles,” Energy Policy, 43, pp. 136–144. [CrossRef]
Rossi, P., Allenby, G., and McCulloch, R., 2005, Bayesian Statistics and Marketing, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. [CrossRef]
Orme, B., 2009, “The CBC/HB System for Hierarchical Bayes Estimation Version 5.0 Technical Paper,” Technical Paper Series, Sawtooth Software, Orem, UT.
Green, P., and Krieger, A., 1996, “Individualized Hybrid Models for Conjoint Analysis,” Manage. Sci., 42(6), pp. 850–867. [CrossRef]
Michalek, J. J., Ebbes, P., Adigüzel, F., Feinberg, F. M., and Papalambros, P. Y., 2011, “Enhancing Marketing With Engineering: Optimal Product Line Design for Heterogeneous Markets,” Int. J. Res. Mark., 28(1), pp. 1–12. [CrossRef]
Chen, W., Hoyle, C., and Wassenaar, H., 2012, Decision-Based Design: Integrating Consumer Preferences into Engineering Design, Springer, London.
Hidrue, M., Parsons, G., Kempton, W., and Gardner, M., 2011, “Willingness to Pay for Electric Vehicles and Their Attributes,” Resour. Energy Econ., 33(3), pp. 686–705. [CrossRef]
GasBuddy, 2014, “Michigan Gas Price.” Available at: http://www.michigangasprices.com
Peterson, S., and Michalek, J., 2012, “Cost-Effectiveness of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Capacity and Charging Infrastructure Investment for Reducing U.S. Gasoline Consumption,” Energy Policy, 52, pp. 429–438. [CrossRef]
ECOtality, 2013, “Q2 2013 Report—The EV Project. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation,” ECOtality North America, Phoenix, AZ, Quarterly Report No. INL/MIS-10-19479.
Clearvoice, 2014, “Clearvoice Research.” Available at: http://www.clearvoiceresearch.com
Loveday, E., 2014, “BEV Sales in U.S. in 2013.” Available at: http://insideevs.com
IHS, 2014, “Global Production of Electric Vehicles to Surge by 67 Percent This Year,” http://press.ihs.com
Census, 2014, “2010 United States Census.” Available at: http://www.census.gov
MathWorks, 2014, “MATLAB r2013a.” Available at: http://www.mathworks.com
Kang, N., Feinberg, F. M., and Papalambros, P. Y., 2013, “A Framework for Enterprise-Driven Product Service Systems Design,” 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13), Seoul, Korea, Aug. 19–22, pp. 297–308.
Lippert, J., 2014, “Toyota Plans Mirai Fuel-Cell Car Traveling 300 Miles Per Tank,” http://www.bloomberg.com
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014, “Average Energy Prices,” Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, http://www.bls.gov
Kang, N., 2014, “Multidomain Demand Modeling in Design for Market Systems,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Framework of decision-making

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Engineering simulation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

CSs coverage for each city under two business models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Southeast Michigan highway network and optimal locations of CSs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Local path coverage of CSs for Ann Arbor, MI, residents

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Histogram of profit differences between results from the two business models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Tradeoff between EV profit and station profit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Postoptimal analysis



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In