0
Design Innovation Paper

Design of a Portable Compliant Device for Estimating the Failure-Load of Mesoscale Cemented Sand Specimens

[+] Author and Article Information
Santosh D. B. Bhargav

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore Karnataka, India
e-mail: sbhargav@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in

Ramesh K. Kandasami

Department of Civil Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore Karnataka, India
e-mail: rameshkk@civil.iisc.ernet.in

Tejas G. Murthy

Department of Civil Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore Karnataka, India
e-mail: tejas@civil.iisc.ernet.in

G. K. Ananthasuresh

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore Karnataka, India
e-mail: suresh@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in

Contributed by the Design Innovation and Devices of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received July 21, 2014; final manuscript received February 19, 2015; published online March 18, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Shorya Awtar.

J. Mech. Des 137(6), 065001 (Jun 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: MD-14-1432; doi: 10.1115/1.4029893 History: Received July 21, 2014; Revised February 19, 2015; Online March 18, 2015

In this paper, we present the design and development of a portable, hand-operated composite compliant mechanism for estimating the failure-load of cm-sized stiff objects whose stiffness is of the order of 10 s of kN/m. The motivation for the design comes from the need to estimate the failure-load of mesoscale cemented sand specimens in situ, which is not possible with traditional devices used for large specimens or very small specimens. The composite compliant device, developed in this work, consists of two compliant mechanisms: a force-amplifying compliant mechanism (FaCM) to amplify sufficiently the force exerted by hand in order to break the specimen and a displacement-amplifying compliant mechanism (DaCM) to enable measurement of the force using a proximity sensor. The two mechanisms are designed using the selection-maps technique to amplify the force up to 100 N by about a factor of 3 and measure the force with a resolution of 15 mN. The composite device, made using a FaCM, a DaCM, and a Hall effect-based proximity sensor, was tested on mesoscale cemented sand specimens that were 10 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length. The results are compared with those of a large commercial instrument. Through the experiments, it was observed that the failure-load of the cemented sand specimens varied from 0.95 N to 24.33 N, depending on the percentage of cementation and curing period. The estimation of the failure-load using the compliant device was found to be within 1.7% of the measurements obtained using the commercial instrument and thus validating the design. The details of the design, prototyping, specimen preparation, testing, and the results comprise the paper.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

ASTM D698, 2007, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort, ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA.
Reddy, K. R., and Saxena, S. K., 1992, “Constitutive Modeling of Cemented Sand,” Mech. Mater., 14(2), pp. 155–178. [CrossRef]
Lagioia, R., and Nova, R., 1993, “A Constitutive Model for Soft Rocks,” International Conference on the Geotechnical Engineering of Hard Soils-Soft Rocks, pp. 625–632.
Jiang, M. J., Yan, H. B., Zhu, H. H., and Utili, S., 2011, “Modeling Shear Behavior and Strain Localization in Cemented Sands by Two-Dimensional Distinct Element Method Analyses,” Comput. Geotech., 38(1), pp. 14–29. [CrossRef]
Vatsala, A., Nova, R., and Murthy, B. R. S., 2001, “Elastoplastic Model for Cemented Soils,” J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 127(8), pp. 679–687. [CrossRef]
O‘Sullivan, C., 2010, Particulate Discrete Element Modeling: A Geomechanics Perspective, Taylor and Francis, London, UK.
Jiang, M., Zhang, W., Sun, Y., and Utili, S., 2013, “An Investigation on Loose Cemented Granular Materials Via DEM Analyses,” Granular Matter, 15(1), pp. 65–84. [CrossRef]
Clough, G. W., Sitar, N., and Bachus, R. C., 1981, “Cemented Sand Under Static Loading,” J. Geotech. Eng. Div., ASCE, 107(6), pp. 799–817.
Howell, L. L., 2001, Compliant Mechanisms, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Kota, S., Hetrick, J., Li, Z., and Saggere, L., 1999, “Tailoring Unconventional Actuators Using Compliant Transmissions: Design Methods and Applications,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics, 4(4), pp. 396–408. [CrossRef]
Jonsmann, J., Sigmund, O., and Bouwstra, S., 1999, “Compliant Electro-Thermal Microactuators,” 12th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, MEMS'99, pp. 588–593.
Krishnan, G., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2008, “Evaluation and Design of Displacement-Amplifying Compliant Mechanisms for Sensor Applications,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(10), p. 102304. [CrossRef]
Khan, S., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., “Improving the Sensitivity and Bandwidth of In-Plane Capacitive Microaccelerometers Using Compliant Mechanical Amplifiers,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 23(4), pp. 871–887. [CrossRef]
Reddy, A. N., Maheshwari, N., Sahu, D. K., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2010, “Miniature Compliant Grippers With Vision-Based Force Sensing,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 26(5), pp. 867–877. [CrossRef]
Frecker, M., Ananthasuresh, G. K., Nishiwaki, S., Kikuchi, N., and Kota, S., 1997, “Topological Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms Using Multi-Criteria Optimization,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 119(2), pp. 238–245. [CrossRef]
Sigmund, O., 1997, “On the Design of Compliant Mechanisms Using Topology Optimization,” Mech. Struct. Mach., 25(4), pp. 495–526. [CrossRef]
Deepak, S. R., Dinesh, M., Sahu, D. K., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2009, “A Comparative Study of the Formulations and Benchmark Problems for the Topology Optimization of Compliant Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 1(1), p. 011003. [CrossRef]
Xu, D., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2003, “Freeform Skeletal Shape Optimization of Compliant Mechanisms,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 125(2), pp. 253–261. [CrossRef]
Zhou, H., and Ting, K.-L., 2005, “Shape and Size Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms Using Wide Curve Theory,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 128(3), pp. 551–558. [CrossRef]
Kim, C. J., Yong-Mo, M., and Sridhar, K., 2008, “A Building Block Approach to the Conceptual Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms Utilizing Compliance and Stiffness Ellipsoids,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(2), p. 022308. [CrossRef]
Howell, L. L., and Midha, A., 1994, “A Method for the Design of Compliant Mechanisms With Small-Length Flexural Pivots,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 116(1), pp. 280–290. [CrossRef]
Beroz, J., Awtar, S., and Hart, A. J., 2014, “Extensible-Link Kinematic Model for Characterizing and Optimizing Compliant Mechanism Motion,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Luzhong, Y., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2003, “Design of Distributed Compliant Mechanisms,” Mech. Des. Struct. Mach., 31(2), pp. 151–179. [CrossRef]
Naik, S. V., Saxena, A., and Rai, A. K., 2010, “On the Criteria for Choice of the Best Solution From a Generated Set of Partially Compliant Linkages,” ASME Paper No. DETC2010-29137. [CrossRef]
Mankame, N. D., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2004, “Topology Optimization for Synthesis of Contact-Aided Compliant Mechanisms Using Regularized Contact Modeling,” Comput. Struct., 82(15), pp. 1267–1290. [CrossRef]
Jacobsen, J. O., Winder, B. G., Howell, L. L., and Magleby, S. P., 2010, “Lamina Emergent Mechanisms and Their Basic Elements,” ASME J. Mech. Rob., 2(1), p. 011003. [CrossRef]
Saxena, A., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2000, “On an Optimal Property of Compliant Topologies,” Struct. Multidiscip. Optim., 19(1), pp. 36–49. [CrossRef]
Hegde, S., 2012, “Pragmatic Design of Compliant Mechanisms Using Selection Maps,” Ph.D. thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
Hegde, S., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2010, “Design of Single-Input-Single-Output Compliant Mechanisms for Practical Applications Using Selection Maps,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(8), p. 081007. [CrossRef]
Baichapur, G. S., Gugale, H., Maheshwari, A., Bhargav, S. D. B., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2014, “A Vision-Based Micro-Newton Static Force Sensor Using a Displacement-Amplifying Compliant Mechanism,” Mech. Des. Struct. Mach., 42(2), pp. 193–210. [CrossRef]
Kandasami, R. K., and Murthy, T. G., 2013, “Experimental Studies on the Mechanics of Cohesive Frictional Granular Media,” Powders Grains, 1542(1), pp. 987–990.
Datasheet, 2005, A1391, A1392, A1393, and A1395: Micro Power 3 V Linear Hall-Effect Sensor ICs With Tri-State Output and User-Selectable Sleep Mode, Allegro Microsystems, Incorporation, Philippines.
Ramsden, E., 2011, Hall Effect Sensors: Theory and Application, Newnes, Burlington, MA.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Symmetric-half of a compliant gripper. (b) SL model of a compliant gripper without the external effects. (c) SL model with external effects such as actuator stiffness and external specimen stiffness. (d) A sample of 3D feasible volume in the 3D space of kci-kco-n.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Feasible region is drawn based on the user specifications. It also shows the location of the existing mechanisms on the plot. (b) Deformed and undeformed configuration of the chosen mechanism. (c) Depending on the size of the specimen the mechanism applies the load on the specimen with different value of mechanical advantage.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

SL model of the composite compliant mechanism developed for testing cemented sand specimen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Feasible region is drawn based on the user specifications. It also shows the location of the existing mechanisms on the plot.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Final design of the composite mechanism. (b) The deformed and undeformed configuration of the final design.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Fabricated composite mechanism. (b) The points on the mechanism where the displacements are estimated. (c) Curve obtained to relate the displacements at the amplified point of the mechanism and the point that is in contact with the specimen. (d) Experimentally obtained curve comparing the voltage sensed by the Hall effect sensor and the distance between the former and the magnet.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) A typical graph that is obtained while manipulating a cemented sand specimen. (b) A typical force versus displacement plot obtained while estimating the failure-load. The compliant tool is compared with the DMA.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In