0
Research Papers: Design Theory and Methodology

Empirical Studies of Designer Thinking: Past, Present, and Future

[+] Author and Article Information
Mahmoud Dinar

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ 85287
e-mail: mdinar@asu.edu

Jami J. Shah

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
Arizona State University,
Tempe, AZ 85287
e-mail: jami.shah@asu.edu

Jonathan Cagan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
e-mail: jcag@andrew.cmu.edu

Larry Leifer

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305
e-mail: larry.leifer@stanford.edu

Julie Linsey

George W. Woodruff
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
Atlanta, GA 30313
e-mail: julie.linsey@me.gatech.edu

Steven M. Smith

Department of Psychology,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843
e-mail: stevesmith@tamu.edu

Noe Vargas Hernandez

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
The University of Texas at El Paso,
El Paso, TX 79902
e-mail: nvargas@utep.edu

Contributed by the Design Theory and Methodology Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received November 12, 2013; final manuscript received November 3, 2014; published online November 26, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Janis Terpenny.

J. Mech. Des 137(2), 021101 (Feb 01, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: MD-13-1523; doi: 10.1115/1.4029025 History: Received November 12, 2013; Revised November 03, 2014; Online November 26, 2014

Understanding how designers think is core to advancing design methods, tools, and outcomes. Engineering researchers have effectively turned to cognitive science approaches to studying the engineering design process. Empirical methods used for studying designer thinking have included verbal protocols, case studies, and controlled experiments. Studies have looked at the role of design methods, strategies, tools, environment, experience, and group dynamics. Early empirical studies were casual and exploratory with loosely defined objectives and informal analysis methods. Current studies have become more formal, factor controlled, aiming at hypothesis testing, using statistical design of experiments (DOE) and analysis methods such as analysis of variations (ANOVA). Popular pursuits include comparison of experts and novices, identifying and overcoming fixation, role of analogies, effectiveness of ideation methods, and other various tools. This paper first reviews a snapshot of the different approaches to study designers and their processes. Once the current basis is established, the paper explores directions for future or expanded research in this rich and critical area of designer thinking. A variety of data may be collected, and related to both the process and the outcome (designs). But there are still no standards for designing, collecting and analyzing data, partly due to the lack of cognitive models and theories of designer thinking. Data analysis is tedious and the rate of discoveries has been slow. Future studies may need to develop computer based data collection and automated analyses, which may facilitate collection of massive amounts of data with the potential of rapid advancement of the rate of discoveries and development of designer thinking cognitive models. The purpose of this paper is to provide a roadmap to the vast literature for the benefit of new researchers, and also a retrospective for the community.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Design , Teams
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Simon, H. A., 1969, The Sciences of the Artificial, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Ball, L. J., Evans, J. St. B. T., Dennis, I., and Ormerod, T. C., 1997, “Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design,” Thinking Reasoning, 3(4), pp. 247–270. [CrossRef]
Cross, N., 2004, “Expertise in Design: An Overview,” Des. Stud., 25(5), pp. 427–441. [CrossRef]
Ho, C., 2001, “Some Phenomena of Problem Decomposition Strategy for Design Thinking: Differences Between Novices and Experts,” Des. Stud., 22(1), pp. 27–45. [CrossRef]
Atman, C. J., Chimka, J. R., Bursic, K. M., and Nachtmann, H. L., 1999, “A Comparison of Freshman and Senior Engineering Design Processes,” Des. Stud., 20(2), pp. 131–152. [CrossRef]
Kim, M. H., Kim, Y. S., Lee, H. S., and Park, J. A., 2007, “An Underlying Cognitive Aspect of Design Creativity: Limited Commitment Mode Control Strategy,” Des. Stud., 28(6), pp. 585–604. [CrossRef]
Jansson, D. G., and Smith, S. M., 1991, “Design Fixation,” Des. Stud., 12(1), pp. 3–11. [CrossRef]
Purcell, A. T., and Gero, J. S., 1996, “Design and Other Types of Fixation,” Des. Stud., 17(4), pp. 363–383. [CrossRef]
Fu, K., Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K., 2010, “Design Team Convergence: The Influence of Example Solution Quality,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(11), p. 111005. [CrossRef]
Dorst, K., and Cross, N., 2001, “Creativity in the Design Process: Co-Evolution of Problem–Solution,” Des. Stud., 22(5), pp. 425–437. [CrossRef]
Paton, B., and Dorst, K., 2011, “Briefing and Reframing: A Situated Practice,” Des. Stud., 32(6), pp. 573–587. [CrossRef]
Ward, T. B., Patterson, M. J., and Sifonis, C. M., 2004, “The Role of Specificity and Abstraction in Creative Idea Generation,” Creat. Res. J., 16(1), pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Kohn, N., and Smith, S. M., 2009, “Partly Versus Completely Out of Your Mind: Effects of Incubation and Distraction on Resolving Fixation,” J. Creat. Behav., 43(2), pp. 102–118. [CrossRef]
Tseng, I., Moss, J., Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K., 2008, “The Role of Timing and Analogical Similarity in the Stimulation of Idea Generation in Design,” Des. Stud., 29(3), pp. 203–221. [CrossRef]
Kokotovich, V., and Purcell, T., 2000, “Mental Synthesis and Creativity in Design: An Experimental Examination,” Des. Stud., 21(5), pp. 437–449. [CrossRef]
Van der Lugt, R., 2005, “How Sketching can Affect the Idea Generation Process in Design Group Meetings,” Des. Stud., 26(2), pp. 101–122. [CrossRef]
Shah, J. J., Smith, S. M., and Vargas-Hernandez, N., 2003, “Metrics for Measuring Ideation Effectiveness,” Des. Stud., 24(2), pp. 111–134. [CrossRef]
Nelson, B. A., Wilson, J. O., Rosen, D., and Yen, J., 2009, “Refined Metrics for Measuring Ideation Effectiveness,” Des. Stud., 30(6), pp. 737–743. [CrossRef]
Clevenger, C. M., and Haymaker, J., 2011, “Metrics to Assess Design Guidance,” Des. Stud., 32(5), pp. 431–456. [CrossRef]
Cross, N., Dorst, K., and Roozenburg, N., 1992, “Research in Design Thinking,” Proceedings of a Workshop Meeting Held at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, Delft University Press, Delft, The Netherlands, May 29–31, 1991, pp. 3–10.
Dorst, K., 2008, “Design Research: A Revolution Waiting-to-Happen,” Des. Stud., 29(1), pp. 4–11. [CrossRef]
Chiu, I., and Shu, L. H., 2010, “Potential Limitations of Verbal Protocols in Design Experiments,” ASME Paper No. DETC2010-28675. [CrossRef]
Cross, N., Christiaans, H., and Dorst, K., 1996, Analysing Design Activity, Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Ullman, D. G., Dietterich, T. G., and Stauffer, L. A., 1988, “A Model of the Mechanical Design Process Based on Empirical Data,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 2(1), pp. 33–52. [CrossRef]
Waldron, M. B., and Waldron, K. J., 1988, “A Time Sequence Study of a Complex Mechanical System Design,” Des. Stud., 9(2), pp. 95–106. [CrossRef]
Maher, M. L., Poon, J., and Boulanger, S., 1996, “Formalising Design Exploration as Co-Evolution: A Combined Gene Approach,” Advances in Formal Design Methods for CAD: Proceedings of the IFIP WG5.2 Workshop on Formal Design Methods for Computer-Aided Design, June 1995, J. S.Gero, and F.Sudweeks, eds., Springer, US, pp. 3–30. [CrossRef]
Maher, M. L., and Tang, H., 2003, “Co-Evolution as a Computational and Cognitive Model of Design,” Res. Eng. Des., 14(1), pp. 47–63. [CrossRef]
Kim, M. J., and Maher, M. L., 2008, “The Impact of Tangible User Interfaces on Spatial Cognition During Collaborative Design,” Des. Stud., 29(3), pp. 222–253. [CrossRef]
Lemons, G., Carberry, A., Swan, C., Jarvin, L., and Rogers, C., 2010, “The Benefits of Model Building in Teaching Engineering Design,” Des. Stud., 31(3), pp. 288–309. [CrossRef]
Chan, C.-S., 1990, “Cognitive Processes in Architectural Design Problem Solving,” Des. Stud., 11(2), pp. 60–80. [CrossRef]
Chan, C.-S., 2001, “An Examination of the Forces That Generate a Style,” Des. Stud., 22(4), pp. 319–346. [CrossRef]
Liikkanen, L. A., and Perttula, M., 2009, “Exploring Problem Decomposition in Conceptual Design Among Novice Designers,” Des. Stud., 30(1), pp. 38–59. [CrossRef]
Khaidzir, K. A. M., and Lawson, B., 2012, “The Cognitive Construct of Design Conversation,” Res. Eng. Des., 24(4), pp. 331–347. [CrossRef]
Gero, J. S., Jiang, H., and Williams, C. B., 2013, “Design Cognition Differences When Using Unstructured, Partially Structured, and Structured Concept Generation Creativity Techniques,” Int. J. Des. Creat. Innovation, 1(4), pp. 196–214. [CrossRef]
Suwa, M., and Tversky, B., 1997, “What Do Architects and Students Perceive in Their Design Sketches? A Protocol Analysis,” Des. Stud., 18(4), pp. 385–403. [CrossRef]
Suwa, M., Purcell, T., and Gero, J. S., 1998, “Macroscopic Analysis of Design Processes Based on a Scheme for Coding Designers' Cognitive Actions,” Des. Stud., 19(4), pp. 455–483. [CrossRef]
Bilda, Z., and Demirkan, H., 2003, “An Insight on Designers' Sketching Activities in Traditional Versus Digital Media,” Des. Stud., 24(1), pp. 27–50. [CrossRef]
Bilda, Z., Gero, J. S., and Purcell, T., 2006, “To Sketch or Not to Sketch? That Is the Question,” Des. Stud., 27(5), pp. 587–613. [CrossRef]
Cardella, M. E., Atman, C. J., and Adams, R. S., 2006, “Mapping Between Design Activities and External Representations for Engineering Student Designers,” Des. Stud., 27(1), pp. 5–24. [CrossRef]
Menezes, A., and Lawson, B., 2006, “How Designers Perceive Sketches,” Des. Stud., 27(5), pp. 571–585. [CrossRef]
Rahimian, F. P., and Ibrahim, R., 2011, “Impacts of VR 3D Sketching on Novice Designers' Spatial Cognition in Collaborative Conceptual Architectural Design,” Des. Stud., 32(3), pp. 255–291. [CrossRef]
Tang, H. H., Lee, Y. Y., and Gero, J. S., 2011, “Comparing Collaborative Co-Located and Distributed Design Processes in Digital and Traditional Sketching Environments: A Protocol Study Using the Function–Behaviour–Structure Coding Scheme,” Des. Stud., 32(1), pp. 1–29. [CrossRef]
Kavakli, M., and Gero, J. S., 2001, “Sketching as Mental Imagery Processing,” Des. Stud., 22(4), pp. 347–364. [CrossRef]
Kavakli, M., Sturt, C., and Gero, J. S., 2002, “The Structure of Concurrent Cognitive Actions: A Case Study on Novice and Expert Designers,” Des. Stud., 23(1), pp. 25–40. [CrossRef]
Ball, L. J., Ormerod, T. C., and Morley, N. J., 2004, “Spontaneous Analogising in Engineering Design: A Comparative Analysis of Experts and Novices,” Des. Stud., 25(5), pp. 495–508. [CrossRef]
Ahmed, S., and Christensen, B. T., 2009, “An In Situ Study of Analogical Reasoning in Novice and Experienced Design Engineers,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 131(11), p. 111004. [CrossRef]
Atman, C. J., Cardella, M. E., Turns, J., and Adams, R., 2005, “Comparing Freshman and Senior Engineering Design Processes: An In-Depth Follow-Up Study,” Des. Stud., 26(4), pp. 325–357. [CrossRef]
Moss, J., Kotovsky, K., and Cagan, J., 2006, “The Role of Functionality in the Mental Representations of Engineering Students: Some Differences in the Early Stages of Expertise,” Cognit. Sci., 30(1), pp. 65–93. [CrossRef]
Eckersley, M., 1988, “The Form of Design Processes: A Protocol Analysis Study,” Des. Stud., 9(2), pp. 86–94. [CrossRef]
Lloyd, P., Lawson, B., and Scott, P., 1995, “Can Concurrent Verbalization Reveal Design Cognition?,” Des. Stud., 16(2), pp. 237–259. [CrossRef]
Gero, J. S., and Tang, H.-H., 2001, “The Differences Between Retrospective and Concurrent Protocols in Revealing the Process-Oriented Aspects of the Design Process,” Des. Stud., 22(3), pp. 283–295. [CrossRef]
Galle, P., and Béla Kovács, L., 1996, “Replication Protocol Analysis: A Method for the Study of Real-World Design Thinking,” Des. Stud., 17(2), pp. 181–200. [CrossRef]
Purcell, A. T., and Gero, J. S., 1998, “Drawings and the Design Process: A Review of Protocol Studies in Design and Other Disciplines and Related Research in Cognitive Psychology,” Des. Stud., 19(4), pp. 389–430. [CrossRef]
Lloyd, P., and Scott, P., 1994, “Discovering the Design Problem,” Des. Stud., 15(2), pp. 125–140. [CrossRef]
Mc Neill, T., Gero, J. S., Warren, J., and Neill, T. M., 1998, “Understanding Conceptual Electronic Design Using Protocol Analysis,” Res. Eng. Des., 10(3), pp. 129–140. [CrossRef]
Ennis, C. W., and Gyeszly, S. W., 1991, “Protocol Analysis of the Engineering Systems Design Process,” Res. Eng. Des., 3(1), pp. 15–22. [CrossRef]
Davies, S. P., 1995, “Effects of Concurrent Verbalization on Design Problem Solving,” Des. Stud., 16(1), pp. 102–116. [CrossRef]
Christiaans, H., and Almendra, R. A., 2010, “Accessing Decision-Making in Software Design,” Des. Stud., 31(6), pp. 641–662. [CrossRef]
Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, P., and Hakkarainen, K., 2001, “Composition and Construction in Experts' and Novices' Weaving Design,” Des. Stud., 22(1), pp. 47–66. [CrossRef]
Gero, J. S., and Mc Neill, T., 1998, “An Approach to the Analysis of Design Protocols,” Des. Stud., 19(1), pp. 21–61. [CrossRef]
Danielescu, A., Dinar, M., Maclellan, C. J., Shah, J. J., and Langley, P., 2012, “The Structure of Creative Design: What Problem Maps Can Tell Us About Problem Formulation and Creative Designers,” ASME Paper No. DETC2012-70325. [CrossRef]
Sonalkar, N., Mabogunje, A., and Leifer, L. J., 2013, “Developing a Visual Representation to Characterize Moment-to-Moment Concept Generation in Design Teams,” Int. J. Des. Creat. Innovation, 1(2), pp. 93–108. [CrossRef]
Tversky, B., 2002, “What Do Sketches Say About Thinking?,” AAAI Spring Symposium, Sketch Understanding Workshop, Stanford, CA, Mar. 25–27, pp. 148–151.
Neiman, B., Gross, M. D., and Do, E. Y.-L., 1999, “Sketches and Their Functions in Early Design. A Retrospective Analysis of a Pavilion House,” 4th Design Thinking Research Symposium, DTRS99, Cambridge, MA, Apr. 23–25, pp. 255–266.
Do, E. Y.-L., 2005, “Design Sketches and Sketch Design Tools,” Knowl.-Based Syst., 18(8), pp. 383–405. [CrossRef]
McFadzean, J., 1999, “Computational Sketch Analyser (CSA): Extending the Boundaries of Knowledge in CAAD,” eCAADe’99: 17th International Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design Europe, Liverpool, UK, Sept. 15–18, pp. 503–510.
Kim, Y. S., Jin, S. T., and Lee, S. W., 2006, “Design Activities and Personal Creativity Characteristics: A Case Study of Dual Protocol Analysis Using Design Information and Process,” ASME Paper No. DETC2006-99654. [CrossRef]
Shah, J. J., Vargas-Hernandez, N., Summers, J. D., and Kulkarni, S., 2001, “Collaborative Sketching (C-Sketch)—An Idea Generation Technique for Engineering Design,” J. Creat. Behav., 35(3), pp. 168–198. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. S., Green, M. G., Murphy, J. T., Wood, K. L., and Markman, A. B., 2005, “Collaborating to Success: An Experimental Study of Group Idea Generation Techniques,” ASME Paper No. DETC2005-85351. [CrossRef]
McKoy, F. L., Vargas-Hernandez, N., Summers, J. D., and Shah, J. J., 2001, “Influence of Design Representation on Effectiveness of Idea Generation,” Proceedings of ASME DETC, Pittsburgh, PA, Sept. 9–12, ASME DETC/DTM-21685.
Viswanathan, V. K., and Linsey, J. S., 2012, “Physical Models and Design Thinking: A Study of Functionality, Novelty and Variety of Ideas,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(9), p. 091004. [CrossRef]
Yang, M. C., and Cham, J. G., 2007, “An Analysis of Sketching Skill and Its Role in Early Stage Engineering Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 129(5), pp. 476–482. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. S., Clauss, E. F., Kurtoglu, T., Murphy, J. T., Wood, K. L., and Markman, A. B., 2011, “An Experimental Study of Group Idea Generation Techniques: Understanding the Roles of Idea Representation and Viewing Methods,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. S., and Viswanathan, V. K., 2010, “Innovation Skills for Tomorrow's Sustainable Designers,” Int. J. Eng. Educ., 26(2), pp. 451–461.
Linsey, J., Viswanathan, V. K., and Gadwal, A., 2010, “The Influence of Design Problem Complexity on the Attainment of Design Skills and Student Perceptions,” Education Engineering (EDUCON), IEEE, Madrid, Spain, Apr. 14–16, pp. 287–294. [CrossRef]
Yang, M. C., and Epstein, D. J., 2005, “A Study of Prototypes, Design Activity, and Design Outcome,” Des. Stud., 26(6), pp. 649–669. [CrossRef]
Christensen, B. T., and Schunn, C. D., 2007, “The Relationship of Analogical Distance to Analogical Function and Preinventive Structure: The Case of Engineering Design,” Mem. Cognit., 35(1), pp. 29–38. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Eckert, C., and Stacey, M., 2000, “Sources of Inspiration: A Language of Design,” Des. Stud., 21(5), pp. 523–538. [CrossRef]
Fu, K., Chan, J., Schunn, C., Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K., 2013, “Expert Representation of Design Repository Space: A Comparison to and Validation of Algorithmic Output,” Des. Stud., 34(6), pp. 729–762. [CrossRef]
Casakin, H., and Goldschmidt, G., 1999, “Expertise and the Use of Visual Analogy: Implications for Design Education,” Des. Stud., 20(2), pp. 153–175. [CrossRef]
Leclercq, P., and Heylighen, A., 2002, “5, 8 Analogies per Hour,” Artificial Intelligence in Design’02, J. S.Gero, ed., Kluwer Academic Pub, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 285–303. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. S., Wood, K. L., and Markman, A. B., 2008, “Modality and Representation in Analogy,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 22(2), pp. 85–100. [CrossRef]
Gadwal, A., and Linsey, J., 2010, “Exploring Multiple Solutions and Multiple Analogies to Support Innovative Design,” Design Computing and Cognition’10, Springer, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. 209–227. [CrossRef]
Holyoak, K. J., and Thagard, P., 1989, “Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction,” Cognit. Sci., 13(3), pp. 295–355. [CrossRef]
Krawczyk, D. C., Holyoak, K. J., and Hummel, J. E., 2005, “The One-to-One Constraint in Analogical Mapping and Inference,” Cognit. Sci., 29(5), pp. 797–806. [CrossRef]
Moss, J., Kotovsky, K., and Cagan, J., 2007, “The Influence of Open Goals on the Acquisition of Problem-Relevant Information,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cognit., 33(5), pp. 876–891. [CrossRef]
Gick, M. L., and Holyoak, K. J., 1980, “Analogical Problem Solving,” Cognit. Psychol., 12(3), pp. 306–355. [CrossRef]
Keane, M. T., 1988, Analogical Problem Solving, Wiley, NY.
Markman, A. B., and Gentner, D., 1993, “Structural Alignment During Similarity Comparisons,” Cognit. Psychol., 25(4), p. 431. [CrossRef]
Namy, L., and Gentner, D., 2002, “Making a Silk Purse Out of Two Sow's Ears: Young Children's Use of Comparison in Category Learning,” Int. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen., 131(1), pp. 5–15. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. S., Markman, A. B., and Wood, K. L., 2012, “Design by Analogy: A Study of the WordTree Method for Problem Re-Representation,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(4), p. 41009. [CrossRef]
Fu, K., Chan, J., Cagan, J., Kotovsky, K., Schunn, C., and Wood, K., 2013, “The Meaning of ‘Near’ and ‘Far’: The Impact of Structuring Design Databases and the Effect of Distance of Analogy on Design Output,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(2), p. 21007. [CrossRef]
Fu, K., Cagan, J., Kotovsky, K., and Wood, K., 2013, “Discovering Structure in Design Databases Through Functional and Surface Based Mapping,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(3), p. 031006. [CrossRef]
Srinivasan, V., and Chakrabarti, A., 2009, “SAPPhIRE–An Approach to Analysis and Synthesis,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, Palo Alto, CA, Aug. 24–27, pp. 417–428.
Chakrabarti, A., Sarkar, P., Leelavathamma, B., and Nataraju, B. S., 2005, “A Functional Representation for Aiding Biomimetic and Artificial Inspiration of New Ideas,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 19(2), pp. 113–132. [CrossRef]
Vattam, S., Wiltgen, B., Helms, M., Goel, A. K., and Yen, J., 2011, “DANE: Fostering Creativity in and Through Biologically Inspired Design,” Design Creativity 2010, Springer, London, UK, pp. 115–122. [CrossRef]
Ask Nature, “Biomimicry 3.8 Institute,” http://www.asknature.org/
Vincent, J. F. V., Bogatyreva, O. A., Bogatyrev, N. R., Bowyer, A., and Pahl, A.-K., 2006, “Biomimetics: Its Practice and Theory,” J. R. Soc., Interface, 3(9), pp. 471–482. [CrossRef]
Chiu, I., and Shu, L. H., 2007, “Biomimetic Design Through Natural Language Analysis to Facilitate Cross-Domain Information Retrieval,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 21(1), pp. 45–59. [CrossRef]
Nagel, R. L., Midha, P. A., Tinsley, A., Stone, R. B., McAdams, D. A., and Shu, L. H., 2008, “Exploring the Use of Functional Models in Biomimetic Conceptual Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(12), p. 121102. [CrossRef]
Shu, L. H., 2010, “A Natural-Language Approach to Biomimetic Design,” Artif. Intell. Eng. Des. Anal. Manuf., 24(4), p. 507. [CrossRef]
Nagel, J. K. S., Stone, R. B., and McAdams, D. A., 2010, “An Engineering-to-Biology Thesaurus for Engineering Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC2010-28233. [CrossRef]
Glier, M., Mcadams, D. A., and Linsey, J. S., 2013, “An Experimental Investigation of Analogy Formation Using the Engineering-to-Biology Thesaurus,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-13160. [CrossRef]
Chrysikou, E. G., and Weisberg, R. W., 2005, “Following the Wrong Footsteps: Fixation Effects of Pictorial Examples in a Design Problem-Solving Task,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cognit., 31(5), pp. 1134–1148. [CrossRef]
Linsey, J. S., Tseng, I., Fu, K., Cagan, J., Wood, K. L., and Schunn, C. D., 2010, “A Study of Design Fixation, Its Mitigation and Perception in Engineering Design Faculty,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(4), p. 041003. [CrossRef]
Purcell, A. T., and Gero, J. S., 1992, “Effects of Examples on the Results of a Design Activity,” Knowl.-Based Syst., 5(1), pp. 82–91. [CrossRef]
Moss, J., Kotovsky, K., and Cagan, J., 2011, “The Effect of Incidental Hints When Problems Are Suspended Before, During, or After an Impasse,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cognit., 37(1), p. 140. [CrossRef]
Cardoso, C., and Badke-schaub, P., 2011, “The Influence of Different Pictorial Representations During Idea Generation,” J. Creat. Behav., 45(2), pp. 130–146. [CrossRef]
Youmans, R. J., 2011, “The Effects of Physical Prototyping and Group Work on the Reduction of Design Fixation,” Des. Stud., 32(2), pp. 115–138. [CrossRef]
Viswanathan, V., and Linsey, J., 2013, “Examining Design Fixation in Engineering Idea Generation: The Role of Example Modality,” Int. J. Des. Creat. Innovation, 1(2), pp. 109–129. [CrossRef]
Viswanathan, V. K., and Linsey, J. S., 2013, “Design Fixation and Its Mitigation: A Study on the Role of Expertise,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(5), p. 051008. [CrossRef]
Viswanathan, V. K., and Linsey, J. S., 2013, “Mitigation of Design Fixation in Engineering Idea Generation: A Study on the Role of Defixation Instructions,” International Conference on Research into Design, Chennai, India, Jan. 7–9, IcORD'13, Springer, India, pp. 113–124. [CrossRef]
English, K., Naim, A., Lewis, K., Schmidt, S., Viswanathan, V. K., Linsey, J. S., Mcadams, D. A., Bishop, B., Campbell, M. I., Poppa, K., Stone, R. B., and Orsborn, S., 2010, “Impacting Designer Creativity Through IT-Enabled Concept Generation,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 10(3), pp. 31001–31007. [CrossRef]
Kurtoglu, T., Campbell, M. I., and Linsey, J. S., 2009, “An Experimental Study on the Effects of a Computational Design Tool on Concept Generation,” Des. Stud., 30(6), pp. 676–703. [CrossRef]
Shah, J. J., 1998, “Experimental Investigation of Progressive Idea Generation Techniques in Engineering Design,” Proceedings of ASME DETC, Atlanta, GA, Sept. 13–16, pp. 1–15.
White, C., Talley, A., Jensen, D., Wood, K. L., Szmerekovsky, A., and Crawford, R., 2010, “From Brainstorming to C-Sketch to Principles of Historical Innovators: Ideation Techniques to Enhance Student Creativity,” ASEE Annual Conference, Louisville, KY, June 20–23, pp. 12–25.
Oriakhi, E., Linsey, J. S., and Peng, X., 2011, “Design-by-Analogy Using the WordTree Method and an Automated WordTree Generating Tool,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, Copenhagen, Denmark, Aug. 15–19, pp. 394–403.
Kokotovich, V., 2008, “Problem Analysis and Thinking Tools: An Empirical Study of Non-Hierarchical Mind Mapping,” Des. Stud., 29(1), pp. 49–69. [CrossRef]
Goldschmidt, G., and Smolkov, M., 2006, “Variances in the Impact of Visual Stimuli on Design Problem Solving Performance,” Des. Stud., 27(5), pp. 549–569. [CrossRef]
Huang, Y., 2008, “Investigating the Cognitive Behavior of Generating Idea Sketches Through Neural Network Systems,” Des. Stud., 29(1), pp. 70–92. [CrossRef]
Tovey, M., Porter, S., and Newman, R., 2003, “Sketching, Concept Development and Automotive Design,” Des. Stud., 24(2), pp. 135–153. [CrossRef]
Bilda, Z., and Gero, J. S., 2007, “The Impact of Working Memory Limitations on the Design Process During Conceptualization,” Des. Stud., 28(4), pp. 343–367. [CrossRef]
Carmel-Gilfilen, C., and Portillo, M., 2012, “Where What's in Common Mediates Disciplinary Diversity in Design Students: A Shared Pathway of Intellectual Development,” Des. Stud., 33(3), pp. 237–261. [CrossRef]
Hirschi, N. W., and Frey, D. D., 2002, “Cognition and Complexity: An Experiment on the Effect of Coupling in Parameter Design,” Res. Eng. Des., 13(3), pp. 123–131. [CrossRef]
Jin, Y., and Chusilp, P., 2006, “Study of Mental Iteration in Different Design Situations,” Des. Stud., 27(1), pp. 25–55. [CrossRef]
Chusilp, P., and Jin, Y., 2006, “Impact of Mental Iteration on Concept Generation,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 128(1), pp. 14–25. [CrossRef]
Egan, P., Cagan, J., Schunn, C. D., and LeDuc, P., 2013, “Utilizing Emergent Levels to Facilitate Complex Systems Design: Demonstrated in a Synthetic Biology Domain,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-12072. [CrossRef]
Alexiou, K., Zamenopoulos, T., Johnson, J. H., and Gilbert, S. J., 2009, “Exploring the Neurological Basis of Design Cognition Using Brain Imaging: Some Preliminary Results,” Des. Stud., 30(6), pp. 623–647. [CrossRef]
Sylcott, B. J., Cagan, J., and Tabibnia, G., 2011, “Understanding of Emotions and Reasoning During Consumer Tradeoff Between Function and Aesthetics in Product Design,” ASME Paper No. DETC2011-48173. [CrossRef]
Tang, J. C., and Leifer, L. J., 1991, “An Observational Methodology for Studying Group Design Activity,” Res. Eng. Des., 2(4), pp. 209–219. [CrossRef]
McCallion, H., and Britton, G. A., 1991, “Effective Management of ‘Intellectual'Teams With Specific Reference to Design,” J. Eng. Des., 2(1), pp. 45–53. [CrossRef]
Goldschmidt, G., 1995, “The Designer as a Team of One,” Des. Stud., 16(2), pp. 189–209. [CrossRef]
Cross, N., and Clayburn Cross, A., 1995, “Observations of Teamwork and Social Processes in Design,” Des. Stud., 16(2), pp. 143–170. [CrossRef]
Frankenberger, E., and Auer, P., 1997, “Standardized Observation of Team-Work in Design,” Res. Eng. Des., 9(1), pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Valkenburg, R., and Dorst, K., 1998, “The Reflective Practice of Design Teams,” Des. Stud., 19(3), pp. 249–271. [CrossRef]
Stempfle, J., and Badke-Schaub, P., 2002, “Thinking in Design Teams—An Analysis of Team Communication,” Des. Stud., 23(5), pp. 473–496. [CrossRef]
Turner, S., and Turner, P., 2003, “Telling Tales: Understanding the Role of Narrative in the Design of Taxonomic Software,” Des. Stud., 24(6), pp. 537–547. [CrossRef]
Dong, A., Kleinsmann, M., and Valkenburg, R., 2009, “Affect-in-Cognition Through the Language of Appraisals,” Des. Stud., 30(2), pp. 138–153. [CrossRef]
Smith, R. P., and Leong, A., 1998, “An Observational Study of Design Team Process: A Comparison of Student and Professional Engineers,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 120(4), pp. 636–642. [CrossRef]
Wilde, D. J., 1999, “Design Team Role,” Proceedings of ASME DETC, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 12–16, ASME Paper No. DETC/DTM-8774.
Wilde, D. J., 2009, Teamology: The Construction and Organization of Effective Teams, Springer, London, UK.
Bucciarelli, L. L., 1984, “Reflective Practice in Engineering Design,” Des. Stud., 5(3), pp. 185–190. [CrossRef]
Wallace, K. M., and Hales, C., 1987, “Detailed Analysis of an Engineering Design Project,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, Boston, MA, Aug. 17–20, pp. 94–101.
Pahl, G., and Beitz, W., 1996, Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, Springer, London, UK.
Dong, A., Hill, A. W., and Agogino, A. M., 2004, “A Document Analysis Method for Characterizing Design Team Performance,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 126(3), pp. 378–385. [CrossRef]
Wood, M., Chen, P., Fu, K., Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K., 2012, “The Role of Design Team Interaction Structure on Individual and Shared Mental Models,” Design Computing and Cognition’12, Springer, College Station, TX. [CrossRef]
Goldschmidt, G., and Tatsa, D., 2005, “How Good are Good Ideas? Correlates of Design Creativity,” Des. Stud., 26(6), pp. 593–611. [CrossRef]
Eris, O., 2004, Effective Inquiry for Innovative Engineering Design, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA. [CrossRef]
Matthews, B., 2009, “Intersections of Brainstorming Rules and Social Order,” CoDesign, 5(1), pp. 65–76. [CrossRef]
Sonalkar, N. S., Mabogunje, A. O., and Leifer, L. J., 2012, “A Visual Representation to Characterize Moment to Moment Concept Generation in Design Teams,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Design Creativity (ICDC2012), Glasgow, UK, Sept. 18–20, Vol. 1, pp. 199–210.
Mabogunje, A., Eris, O., Sonalkar, N., Jung, M., and Leifer, L. J., 2009, “Spider Webbing: A Paradigm for Engineering Design Conversations During Concept Generation,” About Designing: Analysing Design Meetings, J.McDonnell, and P.Llyod, eds., Taylor & Francis, London, UK, pp. 49–65.
Petre, M., 2004, “How Expert Engineering Teams Use Disciplines of Innovation,” Des. Stud., 25(5), pp. 477–493. [CrossRef]
Tovey, M., 1986, “Thinking Styles and Modelling Systems,” Des. Stud., 7(1), pp. 20–30. [CrossRef]
Muller, W., 1989, “Design Discipline and the Significance of Visuo-Spatial Thinking,” Des. Stud., 10(1), pp. 12–23. [CrossRef]
Martin, P., and Homer, G. S., 1986, “The Creative Design Philosophy Applied to the Design of Process Plant,” Des. Stud., 7(4), pp. 216–227. [CrossRef]
Finke, R. A., Ward, T. B., and Smith, S. M., 1992, Creative Cognition: Theory, Research, and Applications, MIT press, Cambridge, MA.
Smith, S. M., and Ward, T. B., 2012, “Cognition and the Creation of Ideas,”Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning, K. J.Holyoak, and R.Morrison, eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 456–474. [CrossRef]
Hernandez, N. V., Shah, J. J., and Smith, S. M., 2010, “Understanding Design Ideation Mechanisms Through Multilevel Aligned Empirical Studies,” Des. Stud., 31(4), pp. 382–410. [CrossRef]
Smith, S. M., 1995, “Fixation, Incubation, and Insight in Memory, Problem Solving, and Creativity,” The Creative Cognition Approach, S. M.Smith, T. B.Ward, and R. A.Finke, eds., MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 135–155.
Smith, S. M., 2003, “The Constraining Effects of Initial Ideas,” Group Creativity: Innovation Through Collaboration, P.Paulus, and B.Nijstad, eds., Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 15–31. [CrossRef]
Smith, S. M., and Tindell, D. R., 1997, “Memory Blocks in Word Fragment Completion Caused by Involuntary Retrieval of Orthographically Related Primes,” J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cognit., 23(2), pp. 355–370. [CrossRef]
Smith, S. M., and Blankenship, S. E., 1991, “Incubation and the Persistence of Fixation in Problem Solving,” Am. J. Psychol., 104(1), pp. 61–87. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., and Schumacher, J. S., 1993, “Constraining Effects of Examples in a Creative Generation Task,” Mem. Cognit., 21(6), pp. 837–845. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kohn, N. W., and Smith, S. M., 2010, “Collaborative Fixation: Effects of Others' Ideas on Brainstorming,” Appl. Cognit. Psychol., 25(3), pp. 359–371. [CrossRef]
Montgomery, D. C., 2009, Design and Analysis of Experiments, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Davis, B. G., 1993, Tools for Teaching, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Wilen, W. W., and Phillips, J. A., 1995, “Teaching Critical Thinking: A Metacognitive Approach,” Soc. Educ., 59(3), p. 135.
Read, C. W., and Kleiner, B. H., 1996, “Which Training Methods are Effective?,” Manage. Dev. Rev., 9(2), pp. 24–29. [CrossRef]
Burke, L. A., and Baldwin, T. T., 1999, “Workforce Training Transfer: A Study of the Effect of Relapse Prevention Training and Transfer Climate,” Hum. Resour. Manage., 38(3), pp. 227–241. [CrossRef]
Amabile, T., 1988, “A Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organizations,” Research in Organizational Behavior, B. M.Staw, and L. L.Cummings, eds., JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp. 123–167.
Sternberg, R. J., and Lubart, T. I., 1996, “Investing in Creativity,” Am. Psychol., 51(7), pp. 677–688. [CrossRef]
Westmoreland, S., Ruocco, A., and Schmidt, L., 2011, “Analysis of Capstone Design Reports: Visual Representations,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(5), p. 051010. [CrossRef]
Westmoreland, S., and Schmidt, L. C., 2010, “What Engineering Student Designers Leave Behind: Developing a Cognitive Coding Scheme for Student Design Journals,” Proceedings of the ASME IMECE, Vancouver, BC, Canada, Nov. 12–18, pp. 249–256.
Lau, K., Oehlberg, L., and Agogino, A. M., 2009, “Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process,” 63rd Annual ASEE/EDGD Mid-Year Conference, Berkeley, CA, Jan. 4–7, pp. 23–28.
McGown, A., Green, G., and Rodgers, P. A., 1998, “Visible Ideas: Information Patterns of Conceptual Sketch Activity,” Des. Stud., 19(4), pp. 431–453. [CrossRef]
Tate, D., Agarwal, A., and Zhang, L., 2009, “Assessing Design Methods for Functional Representation and Concept Generation: Strategies and Preliminary Results,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, Stanford, CA, Aug. 24–27, pp. 441–452.
Cham, J. G., and Yang, M. C., 2005, “Does Sketching Skill Relate to Good Design?,” ASME Paper No. DETC2005-85499. [CrossRef]
Chiu, I., and Shu, L. H., 2008, “Effects of Dichotomous Lexical Stimuli in Concept Generation,” ASME Paper No. DETC2008-49372. [CrossRef]
Smith, G., Richardson, J., Summers, J. D., and Mocko, G. M., 2012, “Concept Exploration Through Morphological Charts: An Experimental Study,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 134(5), p. 51004. [CrossRef]
Kim, Y. S., Kim, M. J., and Jin, S. T., 2005, “Cognitive Characteristics and Design Creativity: An Experimental Study,” ASME Paper No. DETC2005-85520. [CrossRef]
Marples, D. L., 1961, “The Decisions of Engineering Design,” IRE Trans. Eng. Manage., EM-8(2), pp. 55–71. [CrossRef]
Jiang, H., and Yen, C. C., 2009, “Protocol Analysis in Design Research: A Review,” International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) Conference, Seoul, South Korea, Oct. 18–22, pp. 147–156.
Hernandez, N. V., Schmidt, L. C., and Okudan, G. E., 2013, “Systematic Ideation Effectiveness Study of TRIZ,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(10), p. 101009. [CrossRef]
Steinert, M., and Jablokow, K., 2013, “Triangulating Front End Engineering Design Activities With Physiology Data and Psychological Preferences,” Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13), Design for Harmonies, Seoul, South Korea, Aug. 19–22, Vol. 7: Human Behaviour in Design, pp. 109–118.
Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K., 1997, “Simulated Annealing and the Generation of the Objective Function: A Model of Learning During Problem Solving,” Comput. Intell., 13(4), pp. 534–581. [CrossRef]
Campbell, M. I., Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K., 1999, “A-Design: An Agent-Based Approach to Conceptual Design in a Dynamic Environment,” Res. Eng. Des., 11(3), pp. 172–192. [CrossRef]
Campbell, M. I., Cagan, J., and Kotovsky, K., 2000, “Agent-Based Synthesis of Electromechanical Design Configurations,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 122(1), pp. 61–69. [CrossRef]
Egan, P., Cagan, J., Schunn, C. D., and LeDuc, P., 2014, “Cognitive-Based Search Strategies for Complex Bio-Nanotechnology Design Derived Through Symbiotic Human and Agent-Based Approaches,” Proceedings of ASME DETC, Buffalo, NY, Aug. 17–20, ASME Paper No. DETC2014-34714.
Sonalkar, N., Jung, M., Mabogunje, A., and Leifer, L., 2014, “A Structure for Design Theory,” An Anthology of Theories and Models of Design, A.Chakrabarti, and L. T. M.Blessing, eds., Springer, London, UK, pp. 67–81.
Jung, M., Sonalkar, N., Mabogunje, A., Banerjee, B., Lande, M., Han, C., and Leifer, L. J., 2010, “Designing Perception-Action Theories: Theory-Building for Design Practice,” Proceedings of the Eighth Design Thinking Research Symposium, Sydney, Australia, Oct. 19–20, pp. 233–242.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Classification of protocol study methods

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Graphical language for coding (from Ref. [62])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Alternative representation of protocol data (from Ref. [61])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Experiment fixation experiment procedure [68]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Wilde's teamology [140,141] (a) classification of roles and (b) mapping team composite characteristics

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In