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Design Innovation Paper

Design of a Compact Robotic Manipulator for Single-Port Laparoscopy

[+] Author and Article Information
Claudio Quaglia

The BioRobotics Institute,
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,
Pisa 56025, Italy
e-mail: c.quaglia@sssup.it

Gianluigi Petroni

The BioRobotics Institute,
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,
Pisa 56025, Italy
e-mail: g.petroni@sssup.it

Marta Niccolini

The BioRobotics Institute,
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,
Pisa 56025, Italy
e-mail: m.niccolini@sssup.it

Sebastiano Caccavaro

The BioRobotics Institute,
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,
Pisa 56025, Italy
e-mail: s.caccavaro@sssup.it

Paolo Dario

The BioRobotics Institute,
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,
Pisa 56025, Italy
e-mail: p.dario@sssup.it

Arianna Menciassi

The BioRobotics Institute,
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna,
Pisa 56025, Italy
e-mail: a.menciassi@sssup.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Innovation and Devices Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received April 3, 2013; final manuscript received May 25, 2014; published online July 30, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Matthew B. Parkinson.

J. Mech. Des 136(10), 105001 (Jul 30, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: MD-13-1148; doi: 10.1115/1.4027782 History: Received April 03, 2013; Revised May 25, 2014

This paper presents the mechanical design of a novel surgical robotic platform, specifically developed for single-port laparoscopy (SPL). The greatest constraint is the small size of the skin incision through which the robot must operate. Several technical and technological challenges have been tackled to meet the stringent requirements imposed by the surgical procedure at hand. In this paper, a detailed mechanical description of the system is provided, fulfilling the necessary design requirements. The main outcome of this work is a compact, light-weight (total weight approximately 6 kg) and highly dexterous bimanual robot capable of overcoming the current drawbacks experienced in SPL when using traditional medical devices. The system has been assessed in terms of tracking accuracy, resulting in satisfactory and promising performance.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Comparison between the SPRINT robot (left) and the SPRINT 2.0 (right). Legend: 1 = shoulder actuation mechanism, 2 = routing of the gripper cable, 3 = introducer, and 4 = shoulder actuation units.

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Fig. 2

The SPRINT robot 2.0

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Fig. 3

Insertion sequence of the robotic arms into an insufflated abdomen. In clockwise direction (a) the introducer, (b) insertion of the stereoscopic camera, (c) insertion of the first arm, (d) insertion of the second arm, and (e) final robot working configuration.

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Fig. 4

The robotic arm and the joints of the SPRINT 2.0

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Fig. 5

Translational workspace of the SPRINT robot 2.0

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Fig. 6

Shoulder mechanism (a) 3D view of the actuation mechanism of the shoulder module and (b) detailed view of the actuation mechanism for J2

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Fig. 8

Wrist mechanism (a) wrist module: M4 is the motor that actuates the J4 axis, M5 and M6 are the motors that actuate the differential mechanism of J5 and J6 and (b) detailed view of the differential mechanism of the wrist

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Fig. 9

The cable that actuates the gripper is completely routed back through the entire arm and the introducer as well. The cable is then routed back through the shoulder actuation units, and once outside it is connected to an external actuator, which is housed in a dedicated box placed aside from the robot. In clockwise direction: (a) detailed view of the insulating parts of the gripper, (b) gripper actuation system, and (c) custom made surgical gripper.

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Fig. 10

Schematization of friction effects in a sheath-cable system. The cable slides on a static cylinder with velocity v. Fcable is the force that drives the cable, Ffr is the friction force acting between the cable and the cylinder, Fg is the output force of the system, and Θ is the wrap angle in rad.

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Fig. 11

The introducer used for the insertion procedure

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Fig. 12

The spherical markers fixed on the right arm

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Fig. 13

For a forward and backward trajectory in the y-direction, position tracking errors on x, y, and z axes are reported in (a) and RMS Error between the desired and measured position is reported in (b)

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