0
Research Papers

Reliability-Based Vehicle Safety Assessment and Design Optimization of Roadway Radius and Speed Limit in Windy Environments

[+] Author and Article Information
Jaekwan Shin

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: jshin5@ncsu.edu

Ikjin Lee

Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Korea Advanced Institute of
Science and Technology (KAIST),
Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea
e-mail: ikjin.lee@kaist.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received August 19, 2013; final manuscript received April 2, 2014; published online June 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Xiaoping Du.

J. Mech. Des 136(8), 081006 (Jun 02, 2014) (13 pages) Paper No: MD-13-1361; doi: 10.1115/1.4027512 History: Received August 19, 2013; Revised April 02, 2014

This paper presents a reliability-based analysis of road vehicle accidents and the optimization of roadway radius and speed limit design based on vehicle dynamics, mainly focusing on windy environments. The performance functions are formulated as failure modes of vehicle rollover and sideslip and are defined on a finite set of basic variables with probabilistic characteristics, so-called random variables. The random variables are vehicle speed, steer angle, tire–road friction coefficient, road bank angle, and wind speed. The probability of accident was evaluated using the first-order reliability method (FORM) and numerical studies were conducted using a single-unit truck model. The analysis demonstrates that wind is a significant factor when assessing vehicle safety on roads, and probabilistic studies such as reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) are necessarily required to enhance vehicle safety in windy environments. Accordingly, design optimization of roadway radius and speed limit was conducted, and new designs were proposed satisfying the target reliability. This study suggests that probabilistic mechanics and theory can be of value for analysis and design of wind-related vehicle safety.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Strashny, A., 2007, “An Analysis of Motor Vehicle Rollover Crashes and Injury Outcomes,” NHTSA's National Center for Statistics and Analysis, HS-810 741, Transportation Research Board.
MacLennan, P. A., Marshall, T., Griffin, R., Purcell, M., McGwin, G., and Rue, L. W., 2008, “Vehicle Rollover Risk and Electronic Stability Control Systems,” Injury Prev., 14(3), pp. 154–158. [CrossRef]
Farmer, C. M., 2010, “Effects of Electronic Stability Control on Fatal Crash Risk,” Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.
Sayed, T., Abdelwahab, W., and Navin, F., 1995, “Identifying Accident-Prone Locations Using Fuzzy Pattern Recognition,” J. Transp. Eng., 121(4), pp. 352–358. [CrossRef]
Rumar, K., 1986, “The Role of Perceptual and Cognitive Filters in Observed Behavior,” Human Behavior and Traffic Safety, pp. 151–170, Springer, US.
The Road Information Program, 2005, “Growing Traffic in Rural America: Safety, Mobility and Economic Challenges in America's Heartland,” Transportation Research Board.
American Association of State Highway, and Transportation Officials, 2011, “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets,” AASHTO, Washington, DC.
You, K., Sun, L., and Gu, W., 2012, “Reliability-Based Risk Analysis of Roadway Horizontal Curves,” J. Transp. Eng., 138(8), pp. 1071–1081. [CrossRef]
Harwood, D. W., and Mason, J. M., 1994, “Horizontal Curve Design for Passenger Cars and Trucks,” Transp. Res. Rec., Issue1445, pp. 22–23.
Ismail, K., and Sayed, T., 2010, “Risk-Based Highway Design,” Transp. Res. Rec., 2195, pp. 3–13. [CrossRef]
Echaveguren, T., Bustos, M., and De Solminihac, H., 2005, “Assessment of Horizontal Curves of an Existing Road Using Reliability Concepts,” Can. J. Civ. Eng., 32(6), pp. 1030–1038. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. H., Abdel-Malek, K., Xiang, Y., Yang, J., and Arora, J. S., 2011, “Concurrent Motion Planning and Reaction Load Distribution for Redundant Dynamic Systems Under External Holonomic Constraints,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 88(1), pp.47–65. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. H., and Joo, C. B., 2013, “Optimal Motion Planning of Redundant Manipulators With Controlled Task Infeasibility,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 64, pp. 155–174. [CrossRef]
Lee, I., Choi, K. K., Du, L., and Gorsich, D., 2008, “Inverse Analysis Method Using MPP-Based Dimension Reduction for Reliability-Based Design Optimization of Nonlinear and Multi-Dimensional Systems,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 198(1), pp. 14–27. [CrossRef]
Lee, I., Choi, K. K., Du, L., and Gorsish, D., 2008, “Dimension Reduction Method for Reliability Based Robust Design Optimization,” Comput. Struct., 86(13–14), pp. 1550–1562. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X., Hu, Z., and Du, X., 2013, “Probabilistic Inverse Simulation and Its Application in Vehicle Accident Reconstruction,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(12), p. 121006. [CrossRef]
Gragg, J., and Yang, J., 2013, “Digital Human Forward Kinematic and Dynamic Reliabilities,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 135(7), p. 071008. [CrossRef]
Sinha, K., 2007, “Reliability-Based Multiobjective Optimization for Automotive Crashworthiness and Occupant Safety,” Struct. Multidiscip. Optim., 33(3), pp. 255–268. [CrossRef]
Sinha, K., Krishnan, R., and Raghavendra, D., 2007, “Multi-Objective Robust Optimisation for Crashworthiness During Side Impact,” Int. J. Veh. Des., 43(1), pp. 116–135. [CrossRef]
Sigbjörnsson, R., and Snæbjörnsson, J. T., 1998, “Probabilistic Assessment of Wind Related Accidents of Road Vehicles: A Reliability Approach,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 74, pp. 1079–1090. [CrossRef]
Snæbjörnsson, J. T., Baker, C. J., and Sigbjörnsson, R., 2007, “Probabilistic Assessment of Road Vehicle Safety in Windy Environments,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 95(9), pp. 1445–1462. [CrossRef]
Chen, F., and Chen, S., 2011, “Reliability-Based Assessment of Vehicle Safety in Adverse Driving Conditions,” Transp. Res. Part C: Emerging Technol., 19(1), pp. 156–168. [CrossRef]
Gillespie, T., 1992, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
Rajamani, R., 2011, Vehicle Dynamics and Control, Springer, New York.
Shin, J., and Lee, I., 2014, “Reliability-Based Design Optimization of Roadway Horizontal Curves Using First-Order Reliability Method,” Eng. Optim [CrossRef].
Sampson, D. J., and Cebon, D., 2009, “Active Roll Control of Single Unit Heavy Road Vehicles,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 40(4), pp. 229–270. [CrossRef]
You, S. H., Hahn, J. O., and Lee, H., 2009, “New Adaptive Approaches to Real-Time Estimation of Vehicle Sideslip Angle,” Control Eng. Pract., 17(12), pp. 1367–1379. [CrossRef]
Noh, Y., Choi, K. K., and Lee, I., 2010, “Identification of Marginal and Joint CDFs Using Bayesian Method for RBDO,” Struct. Multidiscip. Optim., 40, pp. 35–51. [CrossRef]
Kareem, Y., and TamuraA., 2013, Advanced Structural Wind Engineering, Springer, New York.
Strommen, E., 2010, Theory of Bridge Aerodynamics, Springer, New York.
U.S. Department of Energy, Residential-Scale 30-Meter Wind Maps, retrieved Mar. 14, 2014, http://www.windpoweringamerica.gov/windmaps/residential_scale.asp
Haldar, A., and Mahadevan, S., 2000, Probability, Reliability and Statistical Methods in Engineering Design, Wiley, New York.
Buranathiti, T., Cao, J., Chen, W., Baghdasaryan, L., and Xia, Z. C., 2004, “Approaches for Model Validation: Methodology and Illustration on a Sheet Metal Flanging Process,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 128(2), pp. 588–597. [CrossRef]
Ibrahim, S. E. B., and Sayed, T., 2011, “Developing Safety Performance Functions Incorporating Reliability-Based Risk Measures,” Accid. Anal. Prev., 43(6), pp. 2153–2159. [CrossRef]
Rao, S. S., 2009, Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice, Wiley, New York.
Harwood, D. W., Torbic, D. J., Richard, K. R., and Glauz, W. D., 2003, “Review of Truck Characteristics as Factors in Roadway Design,” NCHRP Report 505, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
Andjus, V., and Maletin, M., 1998, “Speeds of Cars on Horizontal Curves,” Transp. Res. Rec., Issue1612, pp. 42–47. [CrossRef]
Lee, I., Choi, K. K., and Zhao, L., 2010, “Sampling-Based Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis Using Score Functions for RBDO Problems With Correlated Random Variables,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 133(2), pp. 1055–1064. [CrossRef]
Gustafsson, F., 1997, “Slip-Based Tire-Road Friction Estimation,” Automatica, 33(6), pp. 1087–1099. [CrossRef]
Chen, S., and Chen, F., 2011, “Reliability-Based Safety Risk and Cost Prediction of Large Trucks on Rural Highways,” MPC Report No. 11-243, Transportation Research Board.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of vehicle cornering (top view)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of vehicle cornering (rear view)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison between the proposed and existing models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Addition of the velocity vectors

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Influence of design factors on rollover and sideslip criterion: (a) vehicle speed, (b) steer angle, (c) friction coefficient, (d) superelevation and (e) wind speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Wind speed distribution at Lynn

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Weibull fit of all data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Conventional van 5.5T/8.5T model in TruckSim

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Speed limit design at various reliability levels

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Milepost range from 243.4 to 244.7 of Interstate I-70 [41]

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In