Research Papers

Brake Energy Efficiency

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Guarneri, M. Gobbi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa, 1,
Milan 20156, Italy

G. Mastinu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa, 1,
Milan 20156, Italy

C. Cantoni, R. Sicigliano

Brembo S.p.A.,
Via Brembo, 25.
Curno (BG) 24035, Italy

Contributed by the Design Innovation and Devices of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received November 4, 2011; final manuscript received January 28, 2014; published online June 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Xiaoping Du.

J. Mech. Des 136(8), 081001 (Jun 02, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: MD-11-1449; doi: 10.1115/1.4027227 History: Received November 04, 2011; Revised January 28, 2014

Electric braking systems for passenger vehicles have become more and more interesting with the recent developments of hybrid electric and electric vehicles (HEVs and EVs). The major issue is the generation of the actuation energy required during the braking maneuver that makes the utilization of electric actuation unfeasible due to the size of electric actuators and to the existence of layout constraints. Self-energizing mechanisms that could be used to reduce both the actuation force and the energy required for braking are presented and compared in terms of the design criteria that are relevant to braking systems, that is, energy adsorption, actuating force, actuating stroke and, last but not least, stability. The derived analytic models are used to identify the driving design quantities and the sensitivity of the presented self-energizing architectures with respect to the caliper stiffness, which is a crucial aspect for traditional hydraulic calipers as well.

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Fig. 1

The forces involved in the brake torque generation (adapted from Ref. [18])

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Fig. 2

Brake caliper actuation work measured by increasing the actuation force

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Fig. 3

Wedge brake with tangential actuation

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Fig. 4

Wedge brake with normal actuation

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Fig. 5

Rod caliper. The hinge can be virtual.

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Fig. 6

Rod caliper with the hinge connecting the pad shoe

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Fig. 7

The displacements v due to the rotation

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Fig. 8

Normalized position qn

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Fig. 9

Effect of the pad rotation on the stiffness kP

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Fig. 11

Caliper equivalent stiffness

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Fig. 14

Energetic efficiency

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Fig. 15

Specific work. Pad length L = 200 mm.

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Fig. 16

Caliper gain. Pad length L = 200 mm.

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Fig. 17

Wedge caliper with tangential and normal actuation

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Fig. 18

Eigenvalues of the stiffness matrix Ku. Caliper stiffness kC = 109.

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Fig. 19

Specific work. Caliper stiffness kC = 109.

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Fig. 20

Caliper model with additional stiffness km



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