Research Papers

Brake Energy Efficiency

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Guarneri, M. Gobbi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa, 1,
Milan 20156, Italy

G. Mastinu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Politecnico di Milano,
Via La Masa, 1,
Milan 20156, Italy

C. Cantoni, R. Sicigliano

Brembo S.p.A.,
Via Brembo, 25.
Curno (BG) 24035, Italy

Contributed by the Design Innovation and Devices of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received November 4, 2011; final manuscript received January 28, 2014; published online June 2, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Xiaoping Du.

J. Mech. Des 136(8), 081001 (Jun 02, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: MD-11-1449; doi: 10.1115/1.4027227 History: Received November 04, 2011; Revised January 28, 2014

Electric braking systems for passenger vehicles have become more and more interesting with the recent developments of hybrid electric and electric vehicles (HEVs and EVs). The major issue is the generation of the actuation energy required during the braking maneuver that makes the utilization of electric actuation unfeasible due to the size of electric actuators and to the existence of layout constraints. Self-energizing mechanisms that could be used to reduce both the actuation force and the energy required for braking are presented and compared in terms of the design criteria that are relevant to braking systems, that is, energy adsorption, actuating force, actuating stroke and, last but not least, stability. The derived analytic models are used to identify the driving design quantities and the sensitivity of the presented self-energizing architectures with respect to the caliper stiffness, which is a crucial aspect for traditional hydraulic calipers as well.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hartmann, H., Schautt, M., Pascucci, A., and Gombert, B., 2009, “eBrake(R)—The Mechatronic Wedge Brake,” X-By-Wire Automotive Systems, R. K.Jurgen, ed., SAE International, Warrendale, 2009.
Roberts, R. P., Gombert, B., Hartman, H., Lange, D., and Schautt, M., 2004, “Testing the Mechatronic Wedge Brake,” presented at 22nd Annual Brake Colloquium and Exhibition, Anaheim, CA, Oct. 10–13, Paper No. 2004-01-2766.
Fox, J., Roberts, R., Baier-Welt, C., Ho, L. M., Lacrau, L., and Gombert, B., 2007, “Modeling and Control of a Single Motor Electronic Wedge Brake,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2007-01-0866.
Cantoni, C., Arrigoni, R., Mastinu, G., Gobbi, M., and Guarneri, P., 2012, “Caliper for a Brake of a Vehicle,” European Patent No. EP 2339198 B1.
Furutani, K., Datano, M., and Kanayama, N., 2005, “One-Way Bake Mechanism Using Piezoelectric Actuator,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics & Automation, Niagara Falls, Canada, pp. 1235–1240.
Baumann, D., 2005, “Electromechanical Self-Energizing Disk Brake,” Patent No. WO 2005/015046.
Baumann, D., 2005, “Self-Energizing Electromechanical Friction Brake,” Patent No. WO 2005/124181.
Baumann, D., 2006, “Self-energizing Electromechanical Disc Brake,” Patent No. WO 2006/103145.
Baumann, D., 2007, “Friction Brake With Mechanical Self-Boosting and Method for its Actuation,” U.S. Patent No. 7,172,056.
Dietrich, J., 2001, “Electromechanical Brake With Self-Energization,” U.S. Patent No. 6,318,513.
Keller, F., 2003, “Electromagnetic Wheel Brake Device,” U.S. Patent No. 6,536,561.
Hilzinger, J., 2004, “Electromechanical Wheel Brake Device,” U.S. Patent No. 6,806,602.
Schwarz, R., 2001, “Electromechanically Actuated Disc Brake,” U.S. Patent No. 6,315,092.
Halasy-Wimmer, G., 2004, “Actuating Unit for an Electromechanical Disc Brake,” Patent No. WO 2004/048792.
Siler, E. R., 2002, “Electric Caliper Having Splined Ball Screw,” U.S. Patent No. 6,367,593.
Putz, M. H., 2010, “VE Mechatronic Brake: Development and Investigations of a Simple Electro Mechanical Brake,” SAE 2010 Annual Brake Colloquium and Engineering Display, Phoenix, AZ, SAE Technical Paper No. 2010-01-1682.
Kim, J. G., Kim, M. J., and Kim, J. K., 2009, “Developing of Electronic Wedge Brake With Cross Wedge,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-0856.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The forces involved in the brake torque generation (adapted from Ref. [18])

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Brake caliper actuation work measured by increasing the actuation force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Wedge brake with tangential actuation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Wedge brake with normal actuation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Rod caliper. The hinge can be virtual.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Rod caliper with the hinge connecting the pad shoe

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

The displacements v due to the rotation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Normalized position qn

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Effect of the pad rotation on the stiffness kP

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Caliper equivalent stiffness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Energetic efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Specific work. Pad length L = 200 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Caliper gain. Pad length L = 200 mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Wedge caliper with tangential and normal actuation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Eigenvalues of the stiffness matrix Ku. Caliper stiffness kC = 109.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Specific work. Caliper stiffness kC = 109.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Caliper model with additional stiffness km




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In