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Research Papers

Development of Sketch-Based 3-D Modeling System for Rapid Generation and Evaluation of Automotive Seat Shape Using Reference Models

[+] Author and Article Information
Inho Song, Kenji Shimada

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
5000 Forbes Avenue,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213

Jeongsam Yang

Department of Industrial Engineering,
Ajou University,
San 5, Wonchun-dong,
Yeongtong-gu, Suwon 443-749, South Korea
e-mail: jyang@ajou.ac.kr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received April 3, 2013; final manuscript received November 24, 2013; published online March 13, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Karthik Ramani.

J. Mech. Des 136(5), 051001 (Mar 13, 2014) (12 pages) Paper No: MD-13-1150; doi: 10.1115/1.4026495 History: Received April 03, 2013; Revised November 24, 2013

Seat style designers transform their ideas into 3-D forms using creative, iterative modeling processes to quickly evolve their designs from concept to reality, while refining the design details of the seat shape. Although the recent introduction of computer-aided styling systems to the design process has greatly enhanced designers' productivity, they still prefer to ideate using “pen and paper.” Here, we propose a sketch-based 3-D modeling system that enables designers to rapidly and intuitively create a seat shape by applying a 2-D sketch to a normalized seat reference model and then evaluating the newly designed model. For this purpose, we describe three modeling techniques that support interactive shape editing: curve manipulation using pen strokes, vertex point manipulation, and tangent vector manipulation. In addition, we propose three methods for the design and functional evaluation of an automotive seat, checking for interference between a seat skin and its frame, checking for foldability among seat components with regard to their positioning, and checking for coupling between a seat model and a digital human body.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Pipeline of sketch-based 3D modeling using a reference model

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Fig. 2

Visualization of seat entities

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Fig. 3

Representation of geometric surfaces of reference model: (a) coons patch surface representation; (b) seat reference model

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Fig. 4

Sketch-based edge-modification technique and algorithm: (a) input strokes, (b) divide S into two patches, (c) perform interpolation, (d) deformed shape, (e) algorithm

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Fig. 5

Vertex point manipulation of seat skin under symmetry-preserving deformation

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Fig. 6

Tangent manipulation technique: (a) without G1 continuity, (b) with G1 continuity

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Fig. 7

Method for checking interference between seat and inner frame, and algorithm used: (a) sectioning of seat and frame; (b) calculating a section line; (c) algorithm; (d) example of distance measurement between two points

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Fig. 8

Component mating control

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Fig. 9

Foldability check of seat assembly

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Fig. 10

Checking coupling between human body and seat components: (a) seven joint points; (b) sectioning of human and seat; (c) measuring distances along cross sections

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Fig. 11

Sketch-based 3-D modeling system

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Fig. 12

Four graphical viewing modes: (a) wireframe, (b) surface-rendering, (c) polygonal mesh, (d) zebra analysis.

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Fig. 13

Seat design process for generating new shape from idea sketch: (a) freehand-sketched draft; (b) geometry manipulation; (c) intermediate result after 30 min; (d) final seat shape after 75 min; (e) visualization of newly designed seat in CATIA

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Fig. 14

Seat design process for generating new shape from previous design: (a) positioning and adjustment of seat components of existing model; (b) geometry manipulation (line and surface tuning) and interference checking; (c) regeneration of existing seat shape with time (15 min, 30 min, 45 min, and 55 min spent to arrive at final shape)

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