Research Papers

Facilitating Higher-Order Learning Through Computer Games

[+] Author and Article Information
Zahed Siddique

School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering,
University of Oklahoma,
865 ASP Ave,
Norman, OK 73019
e-mail: zsiddique@ou.edu

Chen Ling

e-mail: chenling@ou.edu

Piyamas Roberson

e-mail: saengsuri@ou.edu
School of Industrial and
Systems Engineering,
University of Oklahoma,
202 W. Boyd Street,
Norman, OK 73019

Yunjun Xu

Department of Mechanical, Materials, and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Central Florida,
4000 Central Florida Boulevard,
Orlando, FL 32816
e-mail: yunjun.Xu@ucf.edu

Xiaojun Geng

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering,
University of West Florida,
11000 University Parkway,
Bldg. 4,
Pensacola, FL 32514
e-mail: xgeng@uwf.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Education Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Mechanical Design. Manuscript received January 28, 2013; final manuscript received August 2, 2013; published online September 18, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Janis Terpenny.

J. Mech. Des 135(12), 121004 (Sep 18, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: MD-13-1032; doi: 10.1115/1.4025291 History: Received January 28, 2013; Revised August 02, 2013

Engineering education needs to focus on equipping students with foundational math, science, and engineering skills, with development of critical and higher-order thinking so they can address novel and complex problems and challenges. Learning through a medium that combines course materials with game characteristics can be a powerful tool for engineering education. Games need to be designed for higher order engagement with students, which go beyond remembering, understanding and applying of engineering concepts. In this paper, we present design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a game for engineers. The developed game is founded on experiential learning theory and uses enhanced game characteristics. The racecar game has been designed to facilitate higher-order learning of geometric tolerancing concepts. The course module has been developed and implemented, with assessment of outcomes. The results show that students using the game module, when compared with the control group (lecture-based instruction), had significant improvements when addressing questions that involved higher-order cognition. Survey results also indicate positive student attitudes towards the learning experience with game modules.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Archey, W. T., Engler, J., Fitzgerald, B. K., Farrell, L. P., Castellani, J. J., Scalise, G. M., Wince-Smith, D. L., Wasch, K., Mehlman, B., Westine, L., Miller, H. N., Flanigan, M. J., Dawson, R., Donohue, T. J., and Campos, R., 2005, Tapping America's Potential: The Education for Innovation Initiative, Business Roundtable, Washington, DC.
Blue, C. E., Blevins, L. G., Carriere, P., Gabriele, G., Kemnitzer, S., Rao, V., and Ulsoy, G., 2005, “The Engineering Workforce: Current State, Issues, and Recommendations: Final Report to the Assistant Director of Engineering,” National Science Foundation.
National Academy of Engineering, 2004, The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
National Academy of Engineering, 2005, Educating the Engineer of 2020: Adapting Engineering Education to the New Century, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
National Academy of Sciences, 2005, Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and Employing America for a Brighter Economic Future, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Grose, T. K., 2006, “Trouble on the Horizon,” ASEE Prism, 16, pp. 26–31.
Selingo, J., 2005, “Difficult Crossing,” ASEE Prism, 14, pp. 24–29.
Lang, J. D., Cruse, S., McVey, F. D., and McMasters, J., 1999, “Industry Expectations of New Engineers: A Survey to Assist Curriculum Designers,” J. Eng. Educ., 88(1), pp. 43–52. [CrossRef]
Chubin, D. E., May, G. S., and Babco, E. L., 2005, “Diversifying the Engineering Workforce,” J. Eng. Educ., 94(1), pp. 73–86. [CrossRef]
Felder, R. M., Sheppard, S. D., and Smith, K. A., 2005, “A New Journal for a Field in Transition,” J. Eng. Educ., 94(1), pp. 7–10. [CrossRef]
Anderson-Rowland, M. R., 1997, “Understanding Freshman Engineering Student Retention Through a Survey,” American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Milwaukee, WI.
Budny, D., Bjedov, G., and LeBold, W., 1997, “Assessment of the Impact of the Freshman Engineering Courses,” Proceedings Frontiers in Education 1997 27th Annual Conference, Teaching and Learning in an Era of Change, Champaign, IL, Nov. 5–8, Vol. 2, pp. 1100–1106.
Connor, J. B., Lohani, V. K., Bull, E., Wildman, T. M., Magliaro, S. G., Knott, T. W., Griffin, O. H., and Muffo, J. A., 2004, “An Analysis of Freshman Engineering: A Cross-College Perspective,” American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, Salt Lake City, UT.
Flynn, A. M., and Heist, R. H., 2003, “A Longitudinal Retention Study in an Urban Engineering School,” 2003 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Staying in Tune With Engineering Education, American Society for Engineering Education, Nashville, TN, pp. 12861–12876.
National Science Foundation (U.S.), 1982, “Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering,” National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.
Omer, I. S., Hood, J., Swimmer, F., and Bahe, E., 2003, “Student Retention Dialogue: Focus Group Outcomes,” 2003 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Staying in Tune With Engineering Education, American Society for Engineering Education, Nashville, TN, pp. 11562–11569.
Shuman, L. J., Delaney, C., Wolfe, H., Scalise, A., and Besterfield-Sacre, M., 1999, “Engineering Attrition: Student Characteristics and Educational Initiatives,” American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference, ASEE, Charlotte, NC.
Felder, R. M., and Silverman, L., 1988, “Learning and Teaching Styles in Engineering Education,” Eng. Educ., 78(7), pp. 674–681.
Bloom, B. S., 1956, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain, David McKay Company, New York, NY.
Krathwohl, D. R., 2002, “A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy: An Overview,” Theory Pract., 41(4), pp. 212–218. [CrossRef]
Woods, D. R., 1987, “How Might I Teach Problem Solving?” New Dir. Teach. Learn., 1987(30), pp. 55–71. [CrossRef]
Felder, R. M., and Spurlin, J., 2005, “Applications, Reliability and Validity of the Index of Learning Styles,” Int. J. Eng. Educ., 21(1), pp. 103–112.
Rapeepisarn, K., Wong, K. W., Fung, C. C., and Khine, M. S., 2008, “The Relationship Between Game Genres, Learning Techniques and Learning Styles in Educational Computer Games,” 3rd International Conference on Technologies for E-Learning and Digital Entertainment, Edutainment 2008, Nanjing, China, pp. 497–508.
Sanderson, A., Millard, D., Jennings, W., Krawczyk, T., Slattery, D., and Sanderson, S. W., 1997, “Cybertronics: Interactive Simulation Game for Design and Manufacturing Education,” Proceedings of the 1997 27th Annual Conference on Frontiers in Education, IEEE, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 1595–1606.
Jungmo, G., Jong, O. P., Jin-Sook, L., and Seong-Sik, K., 2002, “Research in Development of a Network Simulation Game for Education of Democratic Citizens,” International Conference on Computers in Education, IEEE Comput. Soc., Los Alamitos, CA, Vol. 1, pp. 354–355.
Carpenter, W. C., 2005, “Teaching Engineering Ethics With the Engineering Ethics Challenge Game,” 2005 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: The Changing Landscape of Engineering and Technology Education in a Global World, American Society for Engineering Education, Portland, OR, pp. 13802–13814.
Hsieh, S.-J., and Kim, H., 2005, “Web-Based Problem-Solving Environment for Line Balancing Automated Manufacturing Systems,” 2005 ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: The Changing Landscape of Engineering and Technology Education in a Global World, American Society for Engineering Education, Portland, OR, pp. 15797–15806.
Entertainment Software Association, 2012, “Essential Facts About the Computer and Video Game Industry,” http://www.theesa.com/facts/pdfs/esa_ef_2012.pdf
Kelly, H., 2005, “Harnessing the Power of Games for Learning,” National Summit on Educational Games, Washington, D.C.
Corti, K., 2006, “Games-Based Learning; a Serious Business Application,” Informe de Pixel Learn., 34(6), pp. 1–20.
Prensky, M., 2001, Digital Game-Based Learning, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Adams, E., 2010, Fundamentals of Game Design, 2nd ed., New Riders, Berkeley, CA.
Salen, K., and Zimmerman, E., 2003, Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, MIT, Cambridge, MA.
Rollings, A., and Adams, E., 2003, Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on Game Design, 1st ed., New Riders, Indianapolis, IN.
Costikyan, G., 2002, “I Have no Words and I Must Design: Toward a Critical Vocabulary for Games,” Proceedings of Computer Games and Digital Cultures Conference, Tampere, Finland, pp. 9–33.
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 1990, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, 1st ed., Harper and Row, New York.
Siddique, Z., Saha, M., Akasheh, F., Barua, B., and Arif, S. M., 2011, “Interactive Scenario Based Teaching of Metal Casting Process,” ASME IDETC 2011, Washington, DC, Paper No. DETC2011-48265).
Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J. J. G., and Paas, F. G. W. C., 1998, “Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design,” Educ. Psychol. Rev., 10(3), pp. 251–296. [CrossRef]
Kolb, A. Y., and Kolb, D. A., 2005, Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education,” Acad. Manage. Learn. Educ., 4(2), pp. 193–212. [CrossRef]
Xu, Y., Miekas, C., Siddique, Z., Ling, C., Chowdhury, S., and Geng, X., 2009, “Gaming and Interactive Visualization for Education—A Multi-Disciplinary and Multi-University Collaborative Project,” ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, San Diego, CA, Vol. 8, pp. 599–609.
Gee, J. P., 2005, “Learning by Design: Good Video Games as Learning Machines,” E-Learning Digit. Media, 2(1), pp. 5–16. [CrossRef]
Jen-Hwa Hu, P., Hui, W., Clark, T. H. K., and Tam, K. Y., 2007, “Technology-Assisted Learning and Learning Style: A Longitudinal Field Experiment,” IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern., Part A. Syst. Humans, 37(6), pp. 1099–1112.
Sharda, N. K., 2008, “Designing, Using and Evaluating Educational Games: Challenges, Some Solutions and Future Research,” The European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Hoic-Bozic, N., Mornar, V., and Boticki, I., 2009, “A Blended Learning Approach to Course Design and Implementation,” IEEE Trans. Edu., 52(1), pp. 19–30. [CrossRef]
Desurvire, H., Caplan, M., and Toth, J. A., 2004, “Using Heuristics to Evaluate the Playability of Games,” CHI2004, ACM, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1509–1512.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experiential learning model [40]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

GIVE activities superimposed on experiential learning model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Fundamental information related to tolerance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Racecar game storyline and an open design problem related to geometric tolerance of components

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Integrated web-based game with scenario to demonstrate outcome of different tolerance stacking choice (the text in the dotted box, for the option selected by the student, is only shown after they have played and evaluated their selected option)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

An interactive race simulator “Live for Speed”

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Sample problem in quiz that requires higher-order cognition




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In