Research Papers

A Family of Remote Center of Motion Mechanisms Based on Intersecting Motion Planes

[+] Author and Article Information
Jianmin Li

e-mail: jimmyzhq@gmail.com

Guokai Zhang

e-mail: zhang_gk@tju.edu.cn
Key Lab for Mechanism Theory and Equipment Design of Ministry of Education,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China

Andreas Müller

Institute of Mechatronics,
Technical University Chemnitz,
Chemnitz 09126, Germany
e-mail: andreas.mueller@ifm-chemnitz.de

Shuxin Wang

Key Lab for Mechanism Theory and Equipment
Design of Ministry of Education,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300072, China
e-mail: shuxinw@tju.edu.cn

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Mechanical Design. Manuscript received August 12, 2012; final manuscript received May 30, 2013; published online July 15, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Oscar Altuzarra.

J. Mech. Des 135(9), 091009 (Jul 15, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: MD-12-1410; doi: 10.1115/1.4024848 History: Received August 12, 2012; Revised May 30, 2013

If a part of a mechanism is restrained to rotate about a point not physically belonging to it, the mechanism is called a remote center-of-motion (RCM) mechanism. The RCM mechanisms are generally designed especially for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) systems, for which great progress has been made in recent years. An RCM mechanism type synthesis method is proposed in this paper by generalizing the intersection of motion planes. The existence of such motion planes is the fundamental feature of the classic Sarrus mechanism, for instance. The basic principle of the type synthesis method is to combine some typical planar mechanisms where their respective motion planes are free to tilt. Hence, the intersection line varies as the planes tilt. There is one invariant point on this intersection line, however, and this is the RCM point. The proposed method is used to design a class of spatial RCM mechanisms. And the kinematic characteristics of them are presented in this paper. In particular, several fully parallel two degree-of-freedom (DOF) RCM mechanisms and a 1-DOF RCM mechanism are considered in detail. Two spatial 3-DOF overconstrained RCM mechanisms are also obtained by the proposed method.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dai, J. S., 2010, “Editorial: Surgical Robotics and Its Development and Progress,” Special Issue on Surgical Robotics, System Development, Application Study and Performance Analysis, Robotica, 28, pp. 161.
Kuo, C. H., Dai, J. S., and Dasgupta, P., 2012, “Kinematic Design Considerations for Minimally Invasive Surgical Robots: An Overview,” Int. J. Med. Rob. Comput. Assist. Surg., 8(2), pp. 127–145. [CrossRef]
Nawrat, Z., and Kostka, P., 2006, “Polish Cardio-Robot “RobIn Heart.” System, Description, and Technical Evaluation,” Int. J. Med. Rob. Comput. Assist. Surg., 2, pp. 36–44. [CrossRef]
Rosen, J., Brown, J. D., Chang, L., Barreca, M., Sinanan, M., and Hannaford, B., 2002, “The BlueDRAGON—A System for Measuring the Kinematics and the Dynamics of Minimally Invasive Surgical Tools In-Vivo,” International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Washington DC, May, pp. 1876–1881.
Taylor, R., Jensen, P., Whitcomb, L., Barnes, A., Kumar, R., Stoianovici, D., Gupta, P., Wang, Z. X., deJuan, E., Kavoussi, L., 1999, “A Steady-Hand Robotic System for Microsurgical Augmentation,” Int. J. Robot. Res., 18(12), pp. 1201–1210. [CrossRef]
Nowlin, W. C., Guthart, G. S., Salisbury, J. K., and Niemeyer, G. D., 2006, “Repositioning and Reorientation of Master/Slave Relationship in Minimally Invasive Telesurgery,” U.S. Patent No. US7087049B2.
Zhou, N. X., Zhu, Z. Y., Chen, J. Z., Liu, Q. D., Zhang, T., and Chen, Z. F., 2011, “Delayed Right Hemihepatectomy Followed by Right-Hepatic Vascular Control Both by da Vinci Robotic Surgery to a Patient of HilarCholangiocarcinoma With Deep Jaundice,” Rob. Surg., 1, pp. 90–97.
Haber, G. P., White, M. A., Autorino, R., Escobar, P. F., Kroh, M. D., Chalikonda, S., Khanna, R., Forest, S., Yang, B., Altunrende, F., Stein, R. J., Kaouk, J. H., 2010, “Novel Robotic da Vinci Instruments for Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery,” Urology, 76(6), pp. 1279–1282. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hanly, E. J., and Talamini, M. A., 2004, “Robotic Abdominal Surgery,” Am. J. Surg., 188, pp. 19S–26S. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zong, G. H., Pei, X., Yu, J. J., and Bi, S. S., 2008, “Classification and Type Synthesis of 1-DOF Remote Center of Motion Mechanisms,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 43, pp. 1585–1595. [CrossRef]
Li, J. M., Wang, S. X., Wang, X. F., and He, C., 2010, “Optimization of a Novel Mechanism for a Minimally Invasive Surgery Robot,” Int. J. Med. Rob. Comput. Assist. Surg., 6, pp. 83–90. [CrossRef]
Li, J. M., Wang, S. X., Wang, X. F., He, C., and Zhang, L. A., 2010, “Development of a Novel Mechanism for Minimally Invasive Surgery,” International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Tianjin, China, December, pp. 1370–1375.
Kuo, C. H., and Dai, J. S., 2011, “Kinematics in Robotic Surgery,” Rob. Surg., 1, pp. 62–71.
Gosselin, C. M., and Angeles, J., 1989, “The Optimum Kinematic Design of a Spherical Three-Degree-of-Freedom Parallel Manipulator,” ASME J. Mech., Transm., Autom. Des., 111(2), pp. 202–207. [CrossRef]
Gogu., G., 2012, Structural Synthesis of Parallel Robots, Part 4: Other Topologies With Two and Three Degrees of Freedom, Springer, New York.
Karouia, M., and Herve, J. M., 2000, “A Three-DOF Tripod for Generating Spherical Rotation,” Advances in Robot Kinematics, J.Lenarcic and M. M.Stanisic, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp. 395–402.
Mitsuishi, M., Sugita, N., Baba, S., Takahashi, H., Morita, A., Sora, S., and Mochizuki, R., 2008, “A Neurosurgical Robot for the Deep Surgical Field Characterized by an Offset-Type Forceps and Natural Input Capability,” 39th International Symposium on Robotics, Seoul, Korea, pp. 915–920.
Schena, B. M., 2008, “Mechanically Decoupled Capstan Drive,” U.S. Patent No. US7391173 B2.
Berkelman, P., and Ma, J., 2006, “A Compact, Modular, Teleoperated Robotic Minimally Invasive Surgery System,” Proceedings of IEEE BioRob Conference, Pisa, Italy, pp. 702–707.
Zhang, X. L., and Nelson, C. A., 2008, “Kinematic Analysis and Optimization of a Novel Robot for Surgical Tool Manipulation,” ASME J. Med. Devices, 2(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Nabil, Z., and Guillaume, M., 2007, “Mechatronic Design of a New Robot for Force Control in Minimally Invasive Surgery,” IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., 2(2), pp. 143–153.
Lum, M. J. H., Friedman, D. C. W., Sankaranarayanan, G., King, H., Fodero, K., Leuschke, R., Hannaford, B., Rosen, J., Sinanan, M. N., 2009, “The Raven: Design and Validation of a Telesurgery System,” Int. J. Robot. Res., 28(9), pp. 1183–1197. [CrossRef]
Vischer, P., and Clavel, R., 2000, “Argos: A Novel 3-DOF Parallel Wrist Mechanism,” Int. J. Robot. Res., 19(1), pp. 5–11. [CrossRef]
DiGregorio, R., 2004, “The 3-RRS Wrist: A New, Simple and Non-Overconstrained Spherical Parallel Manipulator,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 126, pp. 850–855. [CrossRef]
Zoppi, M., Zlatanov, D., and Gosselin, C. M., 2005, “Analytical Kinematics Models and Special Geometries of a Class of 4-DOF Parallel Mechanisms,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 21(6), pp. 1046–1055. [CrossRef]
Bennett, G. T., 1905, “The Parallel Motion of Sarrut and Some Allied Mechanisms,” Philos. Mag., 9(54), pp. 803–810.
Zhang, K. T., Dai, J. S., Fang, Y. F., and Zhu, Z. Q., 2010, “Topology and Constraint Analysis of Reconfiguration in Metamorphic Mechanisms,” Proceeding of the ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conference & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, Aug., Montreal, Canada, pp. 1689–1698.
Zhang, K. T., Dai, J. S., and Fang, Y. F., 2010, “Topology and Constraint Analysis of Phase Change in the Metamorphic Chain and Its Evolved Mechanism,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132, p. 121001. [CrossRef]
Müller, A., “On the Terminology and Geometric Aspects of Redundantly Actuated Parallel Manipulators,” Robotica (accepted).
Müller, A., and Rico, J. M., 2008, “Mobility and Higher Order Local Analysis of the Configuration Space of Single-Loop Mechanisms,” Advances in Robot Kinematics, J. J.Lenarcic and P.Wenger, eds., Springer, New York, pp. 215–224.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The traditional Sarrus mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Tilted straight-line motion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Tilted straight-line motion with ρ=90deg and ψ=25deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

General tilted straight-line motion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

General tilted straight-line motion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Two movable planes with the intersection line passing through a fixed point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Some typical 3-DOF planar serial mechanisms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

RCM mechanisms, the mechanisms (a), (b), and (d) have 2-DOF, and that in (c) has 1-DOF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Kinematic model of RCM mechanism shown in Fig. 8(b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The relationship of ψ1 versus ψ2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The output characteristic of the mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The bifurcated motion of the mechanism when β=45deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Kinematic model of the RCM mechanism shown in Fig. 8(d)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

3 DOF RCM mechanisms




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In