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research-article

Automated Mapping of Physical Effects to Functions Using Abstraction Ports Based on Bond Graphs

[+] Author and Article Information
Bergen Helms

Institute of Product Development,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: helms@pe.mw.tum.de

Hansjoerg Schultheiss

Institute of Machine Elements,
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Technische Universität München,
Garching 85748, Germany
e-mail: schultheiss@fzg.mw.tum.de

Kristina Shea

Engineering Design and Computing Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering,
ETH Zurich, Zurich 8092, Switzerland
e-mail: kshea@ethz.ch

Contributed by the Design Theory and Methodology Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received June 28, 2012; final manuscript received February 20, 2013; published online April 23, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Janet K. Allen.

J. Mech. Des 135(5), 051006 (Apr 23, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: MD-12-1330; doi: 10.1115/1.4023923 History: Received June 28, 2012; Revised February 20, 2013

Innovation processes are highly susceptible to cyclic influences, such as evolving knowledge due to new technologies. In order to better meet these challenges, improved computational design support is required. Paper-based design methods have vast amounts of knowledge at their disposal in the form of their design catalogs. However, they lack a corresponding computational implementation that could lead to increased use in design. The method presented is targeted at making the physical effects contained in design catalogs available for use within computational design synthesis approaches. This paper introduces the notion of abstraction ports that are used to represent the valid mapping between functional operators and physical effects. For the automated assignment of abstraction ports, a method is presented that analyzes the equation structure of physical effects. This approach is derived from the modeling technique of bond graphs and is independent of any selection process proposed by design catalogs. Moreover, it allows for the uniform formalization of evolving knowledge in new physical effects that are not yet contained in design catalogs. The assignment of abstraction ports is successfully validated through the formalization of the physical effects of two design catalogs. Furthermore, a software prototype is developed that implements a search process for suitable physical effects for a given function. Future work includes the integration of quantitative characteristics of physical effects and the integration of the approach within the object-oriented graph grammar implementation booggie (project web site: http://booggie.org) for computational design synthesis.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Allocation of physical effects to functions based on flow ports

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Fig. 2

Graph-based product model based on function, behavior and structure layers and related design process steps as presented in Ref. [11]

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Fig. 3

Allocation of physical effects to functions based on a port-based knowledge repository

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Fig. 4

Tetrahedron of state

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Fig. 5

Example assignment of a C-port

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Fig. 6

Process for assigning abstraction ports

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Fig. 7

Schematic drawing of the Coriolis force, adapted from Ref. [3], and alternatives for assignment of abstraction ports

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Fig. 8

Schematic drawing of the Piezo effect, adapted from Ref. [3], and assignment of abstraction ports

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Fig. 9

Schematic outline of the software prototype implementing the process for assigning abstraction ports

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Fig. 10

Example allocation of Piezo effect to functions comparing this paper to previous work [11]

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