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Research Papers

Topology Optimization of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Skin Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

[+] Author and Article Information
Soobum Lee

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
1000 Hilltop Circle,
University of Maryland Baltimore County,
Baltimore, MD 21250
e-mail: sblee@umbc.edu

Andrés Tovar

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue School of Engineering & Technology,
Indiana University-Purdue
University Indianapolis,
723 West Michigan Street, SL 260,
Indianapolis, IN 46202
e-mail: tovara@iupui.edu

Contributed by Design Innovation and Devices of ASME for publication in the Journal of Mechanical Design. Manuscript received February 9, 2012; final manuscript received December 17, 2012; published online January 17, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Shinji Nishiwaki.

J. Mech. Des 135(3), 031001 (Jan 17, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: MD-12-1107; doi: 10.1115/1.4023322 History: Received February 09, 2012; Revised December 17, 2012

An earlier study introduced the concept of piezoelectric energy-harvesting skin (EHS) to harvest energy by attaching thin piezoelectric patches onto a vibrating skin. This paper presents a methodology for the optimum design of EHS with the use of an efficient topology optimization method referred to as the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) algorithm. The design domain of the piezoelectric material is discretized into cellular automata (CA), and the response of each CA is measured using high-fidelity finite-element analysis of a vibrating structure. The CA properties are parameterized using nonlinear interpolation functions that follow the principles of the SIMP model. The HCA algorithm finds the optimal densities and polarizing directions at each CA that maximize the output power from the EHS. The performance of this approach is demonstrated for the optimal design of EHS in two real-world case studies.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

CA neighborhood layouts in 2D and 3D lattices for different ranges r

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Fig. 2

The hybrid cellular automaton algorithm

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Fig. 3

Design procedure for EHS using HCA algorithm

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Fig. 4

Flowchart of HCA for EHS design

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Fig. 5

Prevention of cancellation effect by changing polarization

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Fig. 6

Segmentation of piezoelectric material

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Fig. 7

The verification problem

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Fig. 8

Topology design result for verification problem

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Fig. 9

Outdoor air conditioning unit

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Fig. 10

FE model of outdoor unit with the cross section of design domain

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Fig. 11

Optimization history of the outdoor air conditioning unit EHS design

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Fig. 12

Design variable distribution at 1st iteration and the final iteration with polarizing direction

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Fig. 13

Change on voltage phase and polarization of the outdoor air conditioning unit EHS design, for first (up) and final (bottom) iteration

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Fig. 14

Power transformer

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Fig. 15

Optimization history of the power transformer EHS design

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Fig. 16

Design variable distribution at first iteration (left) and the final iteration (right) with polarizing direction

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Fig. 17

Voltage phase angle and the corresponding polarizing directions for first (up) and final (bottom) iteration

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