0
Research Papers

Design for Assembly Guidelines for High-Performance Compliant Mechanisms

[+] Author and Article Information
Prasanna Gandhi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Bombay 400076, India
e-mail: gandhi@me.iitb.ac.in

Kaustubh Sonawale

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of California,
Irvine, CA 92697
e-mail: ksonawal@uci.edu

Vaibhav Soni

Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering,
University of California,
Davis, CA 95616
e-mail: vvsoni@ucdavis.edu

Naved Patanwala

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Bombay 400076, India
e-mail: navedp.037@gmail.com

Arvind Bansode

Research and Development Establishment (Engineers),
Defense Research & Development Organization (DRDO),
Pune 411015, India
e-mail: arvindfb@rediffmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Automation Committee of ASME for publication in the Journal of Mechanical Design. Manuscript received February 8, 2012; final manuscript received September 30, 2012; published online November 15, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Shinji Nishiwaki.

J. Mech. Des 134(12), 121006 (Nov 15, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007928 History: Received February 08, 2012; Revised September 30, 2012

Compliant mechanisms with ultrahigh precision motion are being increasingly used for several applications including micromeasurement, micro/nanomanipulation, microfabrication, and so on. Flexure linkages offer inherent advantages of being frictionless, highly repeatable, and having great design flexibility. Monolithic fabrication of these mechanisms limits the use of multiple materials for optimized design and is expensive or infeasible especially for three-dimensional mechanisms. An alternative method of assembling components of a compliant mechanism is considered in this paper and design for assembly guidelines are put forth. It is found that if each of the connections of a compliant mechanism is constrained exactly using two pins as per the traditional practice, internal stresses are generated in the links and their warping does not allow the desired operation of the mechanism. The proposed guidelines, which are based on Grubler’s criteria, include a simple formulation to determine number of locating pins to be used in the entire assembly. Further, these guidelines also determine the locations of these pins. Several compliant mechanisms were fabricated and assembled using these guidelines and were found to be working satisfactorily.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Howell, L. L., 2001, Compliant Mechanisms, John Wiley and Sons Limited, Canada.
Kota, S., 2000, “Compliant Systems Using Monolithic Mechanisms,” Smart Mater. Bull., 2001, pp. 7–9. [CrossRef]
Deshmukh, S., and Gandhi, P. S., 2009, “Optomechanical Scanning Systems for Microstereolithography (MSL): Analysis and Experimental Verification,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(3), pp. 1275–1285. [CrossRef]
Aphale, S. S, Bhikkaji, B., and Moheimani, S. O. R., 2008, “Minimizing Scanning Errors in Piezoelectric Stack-Actuated Nanopositioning Platforms,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol., 7, pp. 79–90. [CrossRef]
Clark, J. V., 2008, “Modeling a Monolithic Comb Drive for Large-Deflection Multi-DOF Microtransduction,” UGIM 2008, IEEE, Vol. 17th Biennial, Paper No. 978-1-4244-2484-9.
Paros, J. M., and Weisbord, L., 1965, “How to Design Flexure Hinges,” Mach. Des., 37(27) pp. 151–156.
Her, I., and Chang, J. C., 1994, “A Linear Scheme for the Displacement Analysis of Micropositioning Stages With Flexure Hinges,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 116, p. 770. [CrossRef]
Lobontiu, N., 2003, Compliant Mechanisms: Design of Flexure Hinges, CRC Press, New York.
Awtar, S., 2003, “Synthesis and Analysis of Parallel Kinematic XY Flexure Mechanisms,” Ph.D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston.
Slocum, A, and Awtar, S., 2011, “Fabrication, Assembly and Testing of a New X-Y Flexure Stage With Substantially Zero Parasitic Error Motions,'' Internal Report, MIT. Available at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~awtar/PHD/report.pdf
Yao, Q., Dong, J., and Ferreira, P. M., 2007, “Design, Analysis, Fabrication and Testing of a Parallel-Kinematic Micropositioning XY Stage,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47, pp. 946–961. [CrossRef]
Stein, P. K., 1962, “Measurement Engineering,” Basic principles, Vol.1, Stein Engineering Services, Tempe, Arizona, Chap 11.
Niaritsiry, T. F., Fazenda, N., and Clavel, R., 2004, “Study of The Sources of Inaccuracy of a 3 DOF Flexure Hinge-Based Parallel Manipulator,” International Conference on Robotics and Automation.
Midha, A., 1993, Modern Kinematics—The Developments in the Last Forty Years, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., NY, Chap 9.
Ananthasuresh, G. K., 1994, “A New Design Paradigm in Microelectromechanical Systems and Investigations on Compliant Mechanisms,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Kang, B. H., and WenJ. T., 2006, "Design of Compliant MEMS Grippers for Micro-Assembly Tasks," Proceedings of International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IEEE/RSJ, Beijing, China.
Orlov, P., 1977, Fundamentals of Machine Design, Vol. 5, Mir Publishers, Moscow.
Anderson, D., and David, M., 2004, Design for Manufacturability & Concurrent Engineering, CIM Press, Cambria, CA, p. 232.
Lee, N. K. S., Hon, K. K. C., Cheung, V. P. Y., and Joneja, A., 2000, “Effect of Datum Securing Method on Precision of Mechanical Alignment System,'' J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 122, p. 350. [CrossRef]
SlocumA., 2010, “Kinematic Couplings: A Review of Design Principles and Applications,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 50, pp. 310–327. [CrossRef]
Cho, Y. H., and Pisano, A. P., 1990, “Optimum Structural Design of Micromechanical Crab-Leg Flexures With Microfabrication Constraints,” Proceedings of ASME, DSC v. 19, Microstructures, Sensors and Actuators, ASME Winter Annual Meeting, pp. 31–50.
Shorya, A., SlocumA. H, and SevincerE., 2007, “Characteristics of Beam-based Flexure Modules,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 129(6), pp. 625–639. [CrossRef]
Uicker, J. J., Pennock, G. R., and ShigleyJ. E., Theories of Machines and Mechanisms, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Double parallelogram compliant mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A zero DOF 3D four bar structure connected using six pins

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Tilt of stage as seen in the actual mechanism, (b) warping of the link as seen in the actual mechanism, (c) isometric view of the deformed position of the stage and links after inserting the extra pin 6, (d) tilt of the stage and warping of links as seen by FEM analysis, and (e) tilt of the stage and warping of links seen by FEM analysis. Case 1: four link compliant mechanism with six pins and hole misalignment: simulated and actual views illustrating tilt of stage and warping introduced

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

A zero DOF three-dimensional four bar structure connected using five pins

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Case 2: Four link compliant mechanism with five pins and hole misalignment: simulated and actual views illustrating no tilting of stage and warp-free links

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Configurations possible for three and four link mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Configurations possible for five link mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Assembly with one full joint and one half joint (higher pair)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Configurations possible for seven link mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Two links to be assembled to have zero DOF

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

CAD model of a double parallelogram compliant mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Fully constrained four link configuration with number of full joints j = 3 less than number of links

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

2D representation of the special case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

CAD model of the special case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

CAD model of the compound double parallelogram flexure mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

2D representation of the double flexural parallelogram mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Double parallelogram compliant mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

CAD model of the displacement amplifying flexural mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

2D representation of the displacement amplifying flexural mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

2D representation of the displacement amplifying flexural mechanism with 28 full joints (filled dots) and 10 half joints (hollow dots)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

2D representation of the six link outer loop and its disintegration into the fundamental configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Compound double parallelogram flexure mechanism

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Displacement amplifying flexural mechanism

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In