Research Papers

Analysis of Lubricating Performance for Involute Gear Based on Dynamic Loading Theory

[+] Author and Article Information
Shi H. Yuan

e-mail: yuanshihua@bit.edu.cn

Hui L. Dong

e-mail: 10903078@bit.edu.cn

Xue Y. Li

e-mail: bitlxy@163.com
Science and Technology on Vehicle Transmission Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China

1Contributed by the National Natural Science Foundation (51175038) for publication in the Journal of Mechanical Design.

Contributed by the Power Transmission and Gearing Committee of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received April 16, 2012; final manuscript received September 24, 2012; published online October 26, 2012. Assoc. Editor: Qi Fan.

J. Mech. Des 134(12), 121004 (Nov 15, 2012) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4007842 History: Received April 16, 2012; Revised September 24, 2012

An integrated model for gear pair that combines the dynamic load with the mixed elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) theory is proposed in this paper covering the film squeeze effect as well as the friction force generated from the rough surfaces. Comparisons between the two models of load which are, respectively, based on minimum elastic potential energy (MEPE) criterion and dynamic motion equations built up in this paper are discussed. The results show that at low speed the loads calculated by the two models are similar. However, with increasing speed, the load exhibits dynamic characteristics gradually and reaches the highest value at resonant speed. Besides, the effects of the helix angle and the lubricant viscosity are also analyzed. Increasing the ambient viscosity could intensify the film stiffness and viscous damping. Gear with larger helix angle could weaken the impact phenomenon at the shift points where one tooth-pair disengages. Moreover, it is symmetric with regard to the pressure and film thickness across the face width for spur gear. Differently, the pressure for helical gear has a higher value at the dedendum of pinion where the film becomes thinner. In addition, speeding up the pinion would generally result in higher dynamic load and film pressure but thicker film thickness.

Copyright © 2012 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Li, S., 2002, “Gear Contact Model and Loaded Tooth Contact Analysis of a Three-Dimensional, Thin-Rimmed Gear,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 127, pp. 511–517. [CrossRef]
Guilbaut, R., Gosselin, C., and Cloutier, L., 2005, “Express Model for Load Sharing and Stress Analysis in Helical Gears,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 127, pp. 1161–1172. [CrossRef]
Cooley, C. G., Parker, R. G., and Vijayakar, S. M., 2011, “A Frequency Domain Finite Element Approach for Three-Dimensional Gear Dynamics,” ASME J. Vib. Acoust., 133(4), p. 0410041. [CrossRef]
Pedrero, J. I., Vallejo, I. I., and Pleguezuelos, M., 2007, “Calculation of Tooth Bending Strength and Surface Durability of High Transverse Contact Ratio Spur and Helical Gear Drives,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 129, pp. 69–74. [CrossRef]
Pedrero, J. I., Pleguezuelos, M., and Artoes, M., 2010, “Load Distribution Model Along the Line of Contact for Involute External Gears,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 45, pp. 780–794. [CrossRef]
Baud, S., and Velex, P., 2002, “Static and Dynamic Tooth Loading in Spur and Helical Geared Systems-Experiments and Model Validation,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 124, pp. 334–346. [CrossRef]
Velex, P., and Ajmi, M., 2007, “Dynamic Tooth Loads and Quasi-Static Transmission Errors in Helical Gears-Approximate Dynamic Factor Formulae,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 42, pp. 1512–1526. [CrossRef]
Tamminana, V. K., Kahraman, A., and Vijayakar, S., 2007, “A Study of the Relationship Between the Dynamic Factors and the Dynamic Transmission Error of Spur Gear Pairs,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 129, pp. 75–84. [CrossRef]
Karpat, F., Osire, S. E., and Cavdar, K., 2008, “Dynamic Analysis of Involute Spur Gears With Asymmetric Teeth,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 50, pp. 1598–1610. [CrossRef]
Liu, G., and Parker, R. G., 2008, “Dynamic Modeling and Analysis of Tooth Profile Modification for Multimesh Gear Vibration,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130(12), p. 121402. [CrossRef]
He, S., and Singh, R., 2008, “Dynamic Transmission Error Prediction of Helical Gear Pair Under Sliding Friction Using Floquet Theory,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 130, p. 052603. [CrossRef]
Hua, D. Y., and Khonsari, M., 1995, “Application of Transient Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis for Gear Transmissions,” Tribol. Trans., 38, pp. 905–913. [CrossRef]
Johnson, K. L., Greenwood, J. A., and Poon, S. Y., 1972, “A Simple Theory of Asperity Contact in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication,” Wear, 19, pp. 91–108. [CrossRef]
Akbarzadeh, S., and Khonsari, M. M., 2008, “Performance of Spur Gears Considering Surface Roughness and Shear Thinning Lubricant,” ASME J. Tribol., 130(2), p. 021503. [CrossRef]
Larsson, R., 1997, “Transient Non-Newtonian Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis of an Involute Spur Gear,” Wear, 207, pp. 67–73. [CrossRef]
Patir, N., and Cheng, H. S., 1979, “Application of Average Flow Model to Lubrication Between Rough Sliding Surfaces,” Trans. ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 101(4), pp. 220–229. [CrossRef]
Patir, N., and Cheng, H. S., 1978, “An Average Flow Model for Determining Effects of Three-Dimensional Roughness on Partial Hydrodynamic Lubrication,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 100(1), pp. 12–17. [CrossRef]
Wu, C. W., and Zheng, L. Q., 1989, “An Average Reynolds Equation for Partial Film Lubrication With a Contact Factor,” Trans. ASME J. Tribol., 111(1), pp. 188–191. [CrossRef]
Zhu, D., and Ai, X. L., 1997, “Point Contact EHL Based on Optically Measured Three-Dimensional Rough surfaces,” ASME J. Tribol., 119, pp. 375–384. [CrossRef]
Wang, W. Z., Liu, Y. C., and Wang, H, 2004, “A Computer Thermal Model of Mixed Lubrication in Point Contacts,” ASME J. Tribol., 126, pp. 162–170. [CrossRef]
Li, S., and Kahraman, A. A., 2010, “Transient Mixed Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Model for Spur Gear Pairs,” ASME J. Tribol., 132, p. 011501. [CrossRef]
Liu, H., Mao, K., and Zhu, C. C., 2012, “Mixed Lubricated Line Contact Analysis for Spur Gears Using a Deterministic Model,” ASME J. Tribol., 134(2), p. 021501. [CrossRef]
Wang, K. L., and Cheng, H. S., 1981, “A Numerical Solution to the Dynamic Load, Film Thickness and Surface Temperatures in Spur Gears, Part I: Analysis,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 103, pp. 177–187. [CrossRef]
Brancati, R., Rocca, E., and Russo, R., 2007, “An Analysis of the Automotive Driveline Dynamic Behavior Focusing on the Influence of the Oil Squeeze Effect on the Idle Rattle Phenomenon,” J. Sound Vib., 303, pp. 858–872. [CrossRef]
Umezawa, K., Suzuki, T., and Sato, T.1986, “Vibration of Power Transmission Helical Gears (Approximate Equation of Tooth Stiffness),” Bull. JSME, 29(251), pp.1605–1611. [CrossRef]
Cai, Y., 1995, “Simulation on the Rotational Vibration of Helical Gears in Consideration of the Tooth Separation Phenomenon (A New Stiffness Function of Helical Involute Tooth Pair),” ASME J. Mech. Des., 117, pp.460–469. [CrossRef]
Moes, H., 1992, “Optimum Similarity Analysis With Applications to Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication,” Wear, 159, pp. 57–66. [CrossRef]
Yang, P., and Yang, P. R., 2006, “Theory of Thermal Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication for Helical Gears,” J. Mech. Eng., 42(10), pp. 43–48 (in Chinese). [CrossRef]
Venner, C. H., and Lubrecht, A. A., 2000, Multilevel Methods in Lubrication, Elsevier, New York.
Ichimaru, K., and Hirano, F., 1974, “Dynamic Behavior of Heavy-Loaded Spur Gears,” Trans. ASME J. Eng. Ind., 5, pp. 373–381. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Dynamic model of a gear pair

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematics of the meshing helical gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Coordinate of lubrication models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Flowchart of computation program

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of dynamic load factor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

The profile errors es(t)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of lubricant ambient viscosity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Dynamic load and relative displacement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Variation of friction coefficient along LoA

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of load-sharing factors along LoA

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pressure distribution at pitch point

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure distribution and film shape along y-axis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Pressure and film thickness along LoA




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In