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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Effects of Frictional Loss on Bicycle Chain Drive Efficiency

[+] Author and Article Information
James B. Spicer, Christopher J. K. Richardson, Michael J. Ehrlich, Johanna R. Bernstein

The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Room 102, Maryland Hall Baltimore, MD 21218

Masahiko Fukuda, Masao Terada

Shimano Inc. Product Engineering Division, Sakai Osaka 590-77 Japan

J. Mech. Des 123(4), 598-605 (Jun 01, 1999) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1412848 History: Received June 01, 1999
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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References

Vogwell, J., 1994, “Chain Drives,” Rotary Power Transmission Design, K. Hurst ed., McGraw-Hill Europe, pp. 79–95.
Tordion, G. V., 1996, “Chains,” Mechanical Design Handbook, H. A. Rothbart ed., McGraw Hill, pp. 25.1–25.12.
Hollingworth,  N. E., and Hills,  D. A., 1986, “Forces in Heavy-Duty Drive Chain during Articulation,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 200, No. C5, pp. 367–374.
Hollingworth,  N. E., and Hills,  D. A., 1986, “Theoretical Efficiency of Cranked Link Chain Drive,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 200, No. C5, pp. 375–377.
Keller,  J., 1983, “Der Wirkungsgrad im Fahrradantrieb,” Radmarkt, No. 12, pp. 71–73.
Kidd,  M., Loch,  N., and Reuben,  R., 1999, “Experimental Examination of Bicycle Chain Forces,” Exp. Mech., 39, No. 4, pp. 278–283.
Kidd, M., Loch, N., and Reuber, R., 1996, “Bicycle Chain Efficiency,” The Engineering of Sport, S. Haake, ed., Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 217–220.
Chew,  M., 1985, “Inertia Effects of a Roller Chain on Impact Intensity,” J. Mech. Trans. Auto. Des. 107, pp. 123–130.
Martin, J., 1996, “Aerodynamics and Cycling,” http://www.krs.hia.no/∼stephans/aero.htm.
Kimball, D. S., and Barr, J. H., 1936, Elements of Machine Design, John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 410.
Juden, C., 1997 “Measurements of Efficiency of Chain and Shaft Drives,” http://www.soroos.net/hbs/chains/sn1_2_2.html.

Figures

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Schematic of chain link showing elements that are involved with frictional loss. Dimensions and angles used in modeling of frictional power loss are also shown.
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Schematic of chain links showing offset condition. The offset angle, γ, is related to the relative lateral displacement of the drive sprockets. Chain offset introduces additional contacting forces that increase frictional losses.
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Experimental schematic of the chain drive test stand showing elements of the drive assembly.
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Variation of chain drive efficiency with the reciprocal of the chain tension. For this graph, chain tension has been calculated using the measured torque values and the radius of the front chain ring.
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Variation of infrared emission with time during chain operation for different drive components. At time equal to 0 s, the unloaded chain drive was placed under the full power loading indicated.
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Diagram showing chain contact forces during link articulation.

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