Modeling and Simulation of Traction Drive Dynamics and Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Z. Zou, Y. Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128

X. Zhang, W. Tobler

Ford Research Laboratory, 2101 Village Road, Dearborn, MI 48124

J. Mech. Des 123(4), 556-561 (Oct 01, 2000) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1402128 History: Received October 01, 2000
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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Hewko, L. O., 1986, “Automotive Traction Drive CVTs–An Overview,” SAE Paper 861355.
Tanaka,  H., 1989, “Power Transmission of a Cone Roller Toroidal Traction Drive,” JSME Int. J., Series III, 32, No. 1, pp. 82–90.
Lu, Z., Thompson, G., Machida, V., and Smith J., 1999, “Simulation of a Continuously Variable Power Split Transmission,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0062.
Vahabzadeh, H., and Linzell, S., 1991, “Modeling, Simulation and Control Implementation for a Split-Torque Geared Neural, Infinitely Variable Transmission,” SAE Paper 910409.
Sakagachi, S., Kimula, E., and Yamamoto, K., 1999, “Development of an Engine-CVT Integrated Control System,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0754.
Yasuoka, M., Uchida, M., Katakuta, S., and Yoshino, T., 1999, “An Integrated Control Algorithm for an SI Engine and CVT,” SAE Paper 1999-01-0752.
Schmid, A., Dietrich, P., Ginsburg, S., and Greering, H., 1995, “Controlling a CVT-Equipped Hybrid Car,” SAE Paper 950492.
Mayer, T., and Schroeder, D., 1996, “Robust Control of a Parallel Hybrid Drivetrain With a CVT,” SAE Paper 960233.
Tanaka,  H., and Eguchi,  M., 1993, “Stability of a Speed Ratio Control Servo-Mechanism for a Half-Toroidal Traction Drive CVT,” JSME Int. J., Ser. C, 36, No. 1, pp. 135–140.
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Zhang,  Y., Zhang,  X., and Tobler,  W., 2000, “A Systematic Model for the Analysis of Contact, Side Slip & Traction of Toroidal Drives,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 122, No. 4, pp. 523–528.
Tevaarwerk,  J. L., and Johnson,  K. L., 1979, “The Influence of Fluid Rheology on the Performance of Traction Drives,” ASME J. Lubr. Technol., 101, pp. 266–274.
Zhang, Y., Zou, Z., Zhang, X., and Tobler, W., 2001 “Ratio Response and Stability of Traction Drive CVT Control,” International Conference on Mechanical Transmissions, Chongqing, China.


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Angular velocity of input disk (rpm)
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Comparison of speed ratios
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Roller axis offset (mm)
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Pressure difference: (Phigh–Plow)
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Free body diagrams of CVT components
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Feedback control system of traction CVT
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Block diagram for traction drive simulation and control
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Traction drive geometry




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