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Research Papers

Design of a Bone Transport Device Using Smart Material Actuators

[+] Author and Article Information
Yuehao Luo

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, 1947 N 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122yuehao@temple.edu

Parsaoran Hutapea1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, 1947 N 12th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122hutapea@temple.edu

1

Corresponding author.

J. Mech. Des 131(9), 091005 (Aug 17, 2009) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3160314 History: Received November 26, 2008; Revised May 23, 2009; Published August 17, 2009

The ultimate goal of our research is to develop a wireless, remotely activated, and implantable bone transport (lengthening) device. Our device is subcutaneously mounted on the periosteal surface of the tibia. Smart materials such as temperature-driven nitinol and magnetostrictive terfenol-D were investigated to be used as actuators to provide the required forces for the bone transport process. It was found that an actuator based on terfenol-D with a magnetic field applied transversely (along the material’s magnetic moment) was the more appropriate technology. Design concepts and proof-of-concept work of both smart material technologies are presented.

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Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 5

(a) The terfenol-D bone transport device and (b)–(e) sketches of proposed device mechanism under a transversely applied magnetic field

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Figure 6

An experimental test setup to study terfenol-D constitutive behavior under a transverse magnetic field

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Figure 7

Force (N) versus time and temperature (°C) versus time of the nitinol actuator test

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Figure 8

Proposed bone transport device using nitinol actuators (17): spring diameter is 1.97 mm, outer diameter is 15.72 mm, spring index is 7, active coils is 23, body length (Lb) is 47.16 mm, free length (Lf) is 70.74 mm, low temperature length (Li) is 51.9 mm, and high temperature length (Lh) is 111.9 mm

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Figure 9

Terfenol-D rod constitutive behavior under transverse magnetic field at position 0: x is strain and y is stress

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Figure 10

Terfenol-D rod constitutive behavior under transverse magnetic field at position 1: x is strain and y is stress

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Figure 11

Terfenol-D rod constitutive behavior under transverse magnetic field at position 2: x is strain and y is stress

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Figure 12

Terfenol-D rod constitutive behavior under transverse magnetic field at position 3: x is strain and y is stress

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Figure 13

Measured Young’s modulus based on right and left strain gauges at different magnet positions

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Figure 14

Crystallographic orientations of terfenol-D (18-19)

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Figure 4

Test setup for nitinol actuators: diameter of the spring is 0.8 mm, the outer diameter is 6.4 mm, spring index is 8, number of coils is 20, length of coil is 20 mm, and the overall length is 32 mm (17)

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Figure 3

CAD models (left) and the manufactured prototype of a nitinol bone transport device (17)

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Figure 1

Existing bone transport methods

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Figure 2

Stress-strain-temperature schematic of the crystallographic changes involved in the shape memory effect

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