RESEARCH PAPERS: Design Automation Papers

Two Generalizations of the Isometric Projection in Geometric Design

[+] Author and Article Information
D. J. Wilde

Mechanical Engineering Design, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305

J. Mech., Trans., and Automation 111(1), 81-86 (Mar 01, 1989) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3258975 History: Received August 10, 1988; Online November 19, 2009


The well-known pictorial drafting technique of isometric drawing is here generalized in two ways, called “isoclinal” and “axial,” or collectively, “symmetric.” Although the isoclinal projection preserves the useful property of foreshortening adjacent edges equally, and the axial projection foreshortens adjacent normals equally, the directions for these projections usually differ from that for isometric projection. Formulas are derived for the isoclinal and axial directions and their foreshortening factors and rotation matrices. Although intended for three-dimensional computer-aided design, the symmetric projections also can be performed on a drawing board with a protractor. Graphic examples involving design of nonrectangular connectors for three skew structural members and adjacent plates in space are presented.

Copyright © 1989 by ASME
Topics: Design
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