Research Papers

An Introduction to Multilayer Lamina Emergent Mechanisms

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul S. Gollnick

Spencer P. Magleby1

Larry L. Howell

Department of Mechanical Engineering,  Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602lhowell@byu.edu


Corresponding author.

J. Mech. Des 133(8), 081006 (Aug 10, 2011) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004542 History: Received October 05, 2010; Revised June 23, 2011; Published August 10, 2011; Online August 10, 2011

Multiple-layer lamina emergent mechanisms (MLEMs) are the mechanisms made from multiple sheets (lamina) of material with motion that emerges out of the fabrication plane. Understanding how layers are used in existing products and in nature provides insight into how MLEMs can also use layers to achieve certain tasks. The multilayered nature of MLEMs and the interactions between these layers show how the capabilities of MLEMs are enhanced and allow them to meet specific design objectives. Layer separation is one objective for which MLEMs are well-suited. Layer separation can have a variety of applications and there are a number of different ways to design a MLEM to achieve this objective.

Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 5

A compliant contact-aided revolute joint. To the left, the mechanism is shown in its initial, undeflected position. To the right, the mechanism is shown in its deflected position.

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Figure 6

The clip on the left is made from hard plastic, with a rigid-body hinge and a metal spring. The clip on the right is made mostly from the same hard plastic as the clip on the left, but the rigid-body hinge is replaced with a flexible material that acts as both a hinge and spring.

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Figure 7

The image at the top shows the different layers of a snowboard. The bottom image is a top view of a snowboard.

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Figure 8

A shoe, with an exploded view of the layers of the shoe sole

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Figure 9

A frying pan, with a section cut away and a zoomed-in view of the base layers of the frying pan

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Figure 10

The layers of a membrane switch

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Figure 11

The intestine, with the different layers shown

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Figure 12

Cell phone, with the different layers of the screen shown

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Figure 13

A solar panel on a roof with radiation from the sun shown as arrows. The close up view shows the layers of a solar panel.

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Figure 14

Illustration of the mechanism footprint. Exploded view to the left and assembled view to the right.

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Figure 22

Single-layer linear-motion LEM spring in deflected position

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Figure 23

Three-layer contact-aided MLEM

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Figure 24

Actuated two-layer parallel-guiding MLEM (only actuates into open position)

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Figure 25

Actuated single-layer parallel-guiding mechanism. (a) Open configuration; (b) crossed configuration

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Figure 26

Three-layer crank-slider MLEM: (a) the three different layers shown separately, pre-assembled; (b) mechanism in initial, flat position; (c) in actuated position

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Figure 1

Top right: top view of single-layer LEM spring. Bottom left: single-layer LEM spring in emergent position.

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Figure 2

Bottom left: A single-layer LEM crank slider in emergent position. Top right: planar topology of a LET joint.

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Figure 4

On the left, a planar double-slit paper mechanism. On the right, a four-bar imposed on the double-slit mechanism to show a kinematic representation of the paper mechanism [19].

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Figure 15

Mirrored, three-layer crank-slider MLEM. (a) Top view; (b) in actuated position.

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Figure 16

Four-layer linear spring in deflected position

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Figure 17

Single-layer linear spring in deflected position

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Figure 18

On the left is a single-layer parallel-guiding LEM. On the right is a two-layer parallel-guiding MLEM.

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Figure 19

Two-layer parallel-guiding MLEM in an actuated position

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Figure 20

Single-layer parallel-guiding LEM in an open actuated position

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Figure 21

Four-layer linear-motion MLEM spring in deflected position

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Figure 27

Metamorphic MLEM: (a) top view of MLEM in initially flat state; (b) MLEM in emergent position; (c) MLEM in one morphed position with double-crank four-bar motion; (d) MLEM in another morphed position with parallel-guiding four-bar motion; (e) MLEM in third morphed position with double-rocker four-bar motion

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Figure 28

Metamorphic, bistable MLEM: (a) initially flat state of MLEM; (b) one stable position of the morphed state; (c) other stable position of the morphed state

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Figure 29

MLEM crank-slider, axes defined as shown

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Figure 30

MLEM Nuremberg scissor mechanism used to separate layers

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Figure 31

MLEM crank-slider attached to parallel-guiding mechanism to separate layers

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Figure 32

MLEM crank-slider pushes up on platform to separate layers

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Figure 33

Nuremberg scissor MLEM repeated to show increased deflection in z-direction

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Figure 3

At the top is a metamorphic LEM in its flat, initial state. The bottom, left image shows the metamorphic LEM, morphed and in one stable position. At the bottom, right the mechanism is morphed and in the other stable position.



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