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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Four-Bar Linkage Mechanism for Insectlike Flapping Wings in Hover: Concept and an Outline of Its Realization

[+] Author and Article Information
Rafał Żbikowski, Christopher B. Pedersen

Department of Aerospace, Power, and Sensors, Cranfield University (RMCS Shrivenham), Swindon SN6 8LA, England

Cezary Galiński

OBRUM, Ul. Toszecka 102, 44-101 Gliwice, Poland

J. Mech. Des 127(4), 817-824 (Jun 27, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1829091 History: Received September 08, 2003; Revised May 26, 2004; Online June 27, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Typical motions of insect wing in hover. Insect body is orientated almost vertically, while the wing tip traces a flat figure-eight around the stroke plane. The stroke plane is inclined by the angle β, typically β≈15 deg.
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Transitional character of Watt’s straight-line mechanism and the related families of Watt’s sextics for varying lengths of the links
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Forcing the desired transition of Watt’s mechanism during the flipover (see Fig. 2): elastic elements replace the singular (infinite) forces with finite ones. Notation: F1 first spring tension, F2 second spring tension, Fd driving force, Md driving moment, ω driven rocker rotation velocity and r driving crank radius.
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A workbench demonstrator of the transition-free Watt’s mechanism, conceptualised in Fig. 3; note the springs and the elastic coupling with the drive train
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Flapping mechanism based on the four-bar linkage figure-eight generator. Section A-A shows the heart of the mechanism: note the wing axles (tipped with balls) moving in a common tube at the center of the coupler: (a) implementation of the coupler link, (b) wing articulation: general view; and (c) wing articulation: cable action.
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Flapping mechanism based on the four-bar linkage figure-eight generator: the drive train with Watt’s linkage and a Geneva wheel for rapid pitch reversal, and the kinematic scheme
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Predicted aerodynamic loading
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View of the complete mechanism with wings
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Sequence of frames from a high-speed camera movie of the mechanism in action, illustrating the stroke reversal of the wing

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