A Three Degree-of-Freedom Model for Self-Retracting Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanisms

[+] Author and Article Information
Nathan D. Masters

Georgia Institute of Technology, 326714 Georgia Tech Station, Atlanta, GA 30332-1125

Larry L. Howell

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602

J. Mech. Des 127(4), 739-744 (Jun 27, 2005) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1828463 History: Received February 10, 2004; Revised April 27, 2004; Online June 27, 2005
Copyright © 2005 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Masters,  N. D., and Howell,  L. L., 2003, “A Self-Retracting Fully-Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., Trans. IEEE ASME,12, pp. 273–280.
Hälg, B., 1990, “On a Nonvolatile Memory Cell Based on Micro-Electro-Mechanics,” Proceedings Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, 1990, An Investigation of Micro Structures, Sensors, Actuators, Machines and Robots, IEEE, pp. 172–176.
Matoba H., Ishikawa, T., Kim, C.-J., and Muller, R. S., 1994, “A Bistable Snapping Microactuator,” Proc. IEEE Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems, Jan. 1994, Oiso (Japan), pp. 45–50.
Vangbo,  M., 1998, “A Lateral Symmetrically Bistable Buckled Beam,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 8, pp. 29–32.
Vangbo,  M., 1998, “An Analytical Analysis of a Compressed Bistable Buckled Beam,” Sens. Actuators, A, 69, pp. 212–216.
Jensen, B. D., Parkinson, M. B., Kurabayashi, K., Howell, L. L., and Baker, M. S., 2001, “Design Optimization of a Fully-Compliant Bistable Micro-Mechanism,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 2001 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November, 2001, IMECE2001/MEMS-23852.
Qiu,  J., Lang,  J. H., and Slocum,  A. H., 2004, “A Curved-Beam Bistable Mechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.,13, pp. 137–146.
Taher,  M., and Saif,  A., 2000, “On a Tunable Bistable MEMS—Theory and Experiment,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.,9, pp. 157–170.
Baker,  M. S., and Howell,  L. L., 2002, “On-Chip Actuation of an In-Plane Compliant Bistable Micro-Mechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.,11, pp. 566–573.
Kruglick, E. J. J., and Pister, K. S. J., 1998, “Bistable MEMS Relays and Contact Characterization,” IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, June 8–11, pp. 333–337.
Jensen,  B. D., Howell,  L. L., and Salmon,  L. G., 1999, “Design of Two-Link In-Plane, Bistable Compliant Micro-Mechanisms,” J. Mech. Des., 121, pp. 416–423.
Kruglick,  E. J. J., and Pister,  K. S. J., 1999, “Lateral MEMS Microcontact Considerations,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.,8, pp. 264–271.
Jensen,  B. D., and Howell,  L. L., 2003, “Identification of Compliant Pseudo-Rigid-Body Mechanism Configurations Resulting in Bistable Behavior,” J. Mech. Des., 125, pp. 701–708.
Baker, M. S., Lyon, S. M., and Howell, L. L., 2000, “A Linear Displacement Bistable Micromechanism,” Proceedings of the 2000 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, DETC2000/MECH-14117, pp. 1–7.
Koester, D. A., Mahadevan, R., Hardy, B., and Markus, K. W., 2000, MUMPs™ Design Handbook Revision 5.0, Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Rodgers, S., 1999, “Dynamic MEMS Design,” Sandia MEMS Advanced Design Short Course, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.
Howell, L. L., 2001, Compliant Mechanisms, Wiley, New York.
Frecker,  M., Kikuchi,  N., and Kota,  S., 1999, “Topology Optimization of Compliant Mechanisms With Multiple Outputs,” Struct. Optim., 17, pp. 269–278.
Saxena,  A., and Ananthasuresh,  G. K., 2000, “On an Optimal Property of Compliant Topologies,” Struct. Multidisc. Opt.,19, pp. 36–49.
Pedersen,  C. B. W., Buhl,  T., and Sigmund,  O., 2001, “Topology Synthesis of Large-Displacement Compliant Mechanisms,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 50, pp. 2683–2705.
Tai,  K., Cui,  G. Y., and Ray,  T., 2002, “Design Synthesis of Path Generating Compliant Mechanisms by Evolutionary Optimization of Topology and Shape,” J. Mech. Des., 124, pp. 492–500.
Xu,  D., and Ananthasuresh,  G. K., 2003, “Freeform Skeletal Shape Optimization of Compliant Mechanisms,” J. Mech. Des., 125, pp. 253–261.
Ananthasuresh, G. K., and Frecker, M., 2001, “Optimal Synthesis With Continuum Models,” Compliant Mechanisms, John Wiley, New York.
Jensen, B. D., and Howell, L. L., 2004, “Bistable Configurations of Compliant Mechanisms Modeled Using Four Links and Translational Joints,” J. Mech. Des., in press.
Howell,  L. L., and Midha,  A., 1994, “A Method for the Design of Compliant Mechanisms With Small-Length Flexural Pivots,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 116, pp. 280–290.
Guerinot, A. E., Magleby, S. P., Howell, L. L., and Todd, R. H., 2005, “Compliant Joint Design Principles for High Compressive Load Situations,” J. Mech. Design, in press.
Gere, J. M., and Timoshenko, S. P., 1984, Mechanics of Materials, 3rd ed., PWS Kent, Boston.
Juvinall, R. C., 1967, Engineering Considerations of Stress, Strain, and Strength, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Masters, N. D., and Howell, L. L., “A Three Degree of Freedom Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model for the Design of a Fully Compliant Bistable Micromechanism,” Proceedings of the 2002 ASME Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, DETC2002/MECH-34202.
Paul, B., 1979, Kinematics and Dynamics of Planar Machinery, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Koester, D. A., Mahadevan, R., Hardy, B., and Markus, K. W., 2000, MUMPs Design Handbook, Rev 5.0, Cronos Integrated Microsystems, Research Triangle Park, NC.
Cragun, R., and Howell, L. L., 1999, “Linear Thermomechanical Microactuators,” Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), at the 1999 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. 181–188.
Howell,  L. L., and McLain,  T. W., 2002, “A Little Push,” Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.), 124, pp. 58–59.
Lott,  C. D., McLain,  T. W., Harb,  J. N., and Howell,  L. L., 2002, “Modeling the Thermal Behavior of a Surface-Micromachined Linear-Displacement Thermomechanical Microactuator,” Sens. Actuators, A, 101, pp. 239–250.
Wittwer,  J. W., Gomm,  T., and Howell,  L. L., 2002, “Surface Micromachined Force Gauges: Uncertainty and Reliability,” J. Micromech. Microeng., 12, pp. 13–20.


Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of SRFBM models: (a) force-deflection and (b) potential energy. Equilibria are identified in the potential energy curves as minima (stable) and maxima (unstable) and correspond to the zeros of the force-deflection curves. The MCF (measured critical force) is depicted as a horizontal line.
Grahic Jump Location
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of SRFBM system: (a) SRFBM; (b) and (c) forward and return thermomechanical in-plane microactuators (TIM), respectively; (d) electrical switching contacts; and (e) electrical bond pads for resistive thermal self-retraction
Grahic Jump Location
SRFBM (a) single degree-of-freedom double-slider model overlayed with SRFBM geometry, and (b) three degree-of-freedom pseudo-rigid-body model
Grahic Jump Location
Vector loop diagram superposed on the PRBM. The vector z̄3 is offset for clarity.
Grahic Jump Location
SEM images showing force tester and SRFBM in the second stable equilibrium position



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In