Design of a Passively Balanced Spatial Linkage Haptic Interface

[+] Author and Article Information
R. Steger, K. Lin, H. Kazerooni

Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720

B. D. Adelstein

Human Factors Research & Technology Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035

J. Mech. Des 126(6), 984-991 (Feb 14, 2005) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1798111 History: Received August 12, 2003; Revised February 06, 2004; Online February 14, 2005
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Adelstein, B. D., Ho, P., and Kazerooni, H., 1996, “Kinematic design of a three degree of freedom parallel hand controller mechanism,” Proc. 5th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division, DSC-Vol. 58, New York, pp. 539–546.
Millman, P. A., and Colgate, J. E., 1991, “Design of a four degree-of-freedom force reflecting manipulandum with a specified force/torque workspace,” Proc. IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, Sacramento, pp. 1488–1493.
Goertz,  R. C., and Thompson,  W. M., 1954, “Electronically controlled manipulator,” Nucleonics, pp. 46–47.
Batter, J. J., and Brooks, Jr., F. P., 1971, “A computer display to the sense of feel,” Information Processing, Proc. IFIP Congress 71, Ljubljana, pp. 506–508.
Adelstein, B. D., 1998, “Three degree of freedom parallel mechanical linkage,” U.S. Patent No. 5,816,105.
Massie, T. H., and Salisbury, J. K., 1994, “The PHANToM haptic interface: A device for probing virtual objects,” Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, Proc. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division, DSC-Vol. 55-1, New York, pp. 295–301.
Siva, K. V., Dumbreck, A. A., Fischer, P. J., and Abel, E., 1988, “Development of a general purpose hand controller for advanced teleoperation,” Proc. International Symposium on Teleoperation and Control, Bristol, pp. 277–290.
Brandt,  G., Aimlong,  A., Carrat,  L., Merloz,  P., Staudte,  H. W., Lavallee,  S., Radermacher,  K., and Rau,  G., 1999, “CIRGOS: A compact robot for image guided orthopaedic interventions,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed., 3–4, pp. 252–260.
Grange, S., Conti, F., Helmer, P., Rouiller, P., and Baur, C., 2001, “Overview of the Delta Haptic Device (poster),” Eurohaptics 2001, Birmingham, England.
Melchiorri, C., Vassura, G., and Arcara, P., 1999, “What kind of haptic perception can you get with a one-wire interface?,” Proc. IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation, Detroit, pp. 1620–1625.
Takeda, Y., and Funabashi, H., 2000, “Kinematic synthesis of spatial in-parallel wire-driven mechanism with six degrees of freedom with high force transmissibility,” Proc. ASME 2000 Design Engineering Technical Conferences, Baltimore, pp. 1–9.
Kim, S., Ishii, M., Koike, Y., and Sato, M., 2000, “Development of tension Based haptic interface and possibility of its application to virtual reality,” Proc. ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 199–205.
Birglen,  L., Gosselin,  C., Pouliot,  N., and Monsarrat,  B., 2002, “SHaDe, A new 3-DOF haptic device,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 18-2, pp. 166–175.
Adelstein,  B. D., and Rosen,  M. J., 1992, “Design and implementation of a force reflecting manipulandum for manual control research,” ASME Advances in Robotics, 42, pp. 1–12.
Ho, P., 2002, “Haptic simulation of 3D primitive objects and textures using a novel force-reflecting interface,” Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
Adelstein, B. D., Gayme, D. F., Kazerooni, H., and Ho, P., 1998, “Three degree of freedom haptic Interface for precision manipulation,” Proc. ASME Dynamic Systems and Control Division, DSC-Vol. 64, New York, p. 185.
Chung, R., 2001, “Actuator, sensor, and control hardware for improved haptic interface performance,” Masters of Science thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.
Chung, R., 2002, “Hardware for improved haptic interface performance,” in Touch in Virtual Environments: Haptics and the Design of Interactive Systems, edited by M. L. McLaughlin, J. P. Hespanha, and G. S. Sukhatme, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, pp. 71–94.
Ho, P., Adelstein, B. D., and Kazerooni, H., 2004, “Judging 2D versus 3D square-wave virtual gratings,” Proceedings, 12th International Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, IEEE, Chicago, pp. 176–183.
Ebert-Uphoff,  I., Gosselin,  C. M., and Laliberte,  T., 2000, “Static balancing of spatial parallel platform mechanisms—Revisited,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 122, pp. 43–51.
Yu,  Y., and Lin,  J., 2003, “Active balancing of a flexible linkage with redundant drives,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 125, pp. 119–123.
Marcus,  C. E., 1998, “Force feedback for surgical simulation,” Proc. IEEE, 86, pp. 524–530.
Anderson, D., 2001, Universal Serial Bus System Architecture, 2nd ed., edited by K. Tibbetts, pp. 13–24.


Grahic Jump Location
Finished three-degree-of-freedom fused deposition modeling (FDM) rapid prototype polycarbonate joystick. The actuators, power amplifiers and control electronics are all housed in the enclosure. The complete haptic device dimensions are 33 cm×25 cm×10 cm.
Grahic Jump Location
Plastic linkage assembly: each link is labeled and motor axes α, β, and γ are shown (Link 1 is the stationary base link formed by the enclosure and is not shown. This base link lies in the plane of the motor axes).
Grahic Jump Location
Simplified view of the original joystick linkage from Ref. 1. This configuration is kinematically equivalent to the new linkage design.
Grahic Jump Location
The coordinate system used to describe the joystick linkage kinematics. Positive angular (α, β, and γ) and translational (x,y, and z) displacement are labeled. Actuators are labeled A, B, and Γ. The origin of the xyz coordinate frame is located at the mechanism center of the spherical portion of the linkage.
Grahic Jump Location
The coordinate system used to define the link dimensions. In this example, Db is greater than zero and for base links 2, 5, and 8 the origin frame (xa*,za*) is at the mechanism center. Link pairs corresponding to linka and linkb in this diagram are 3 and 2, 4 and 5, 6 and 5, and 7 and 8, respectively. For all planar links, Lb is equal to zero.
Grahic Jump Location
CAD model close-up of the FDM plastic linkage assembly with mass-balance counterweights (shown installed in device encloser)
Grahic Jump Location
CAD model of the metal implementation of spatial mechanism
Grahic Jump Location
(a–c) x-y,y-x, and x-z plane views of the collision-free endpoint workspace. A rectangle, labeled A, represents the location of the alpha motor in each figure. All axes are labeled in inches. The origin in the figures is located at the mechanism center.
Grahic Jump Location
Control hardware and software architecture




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In